Shaftesbury is a town in Dorset, England, situated on the A30 road near the Wiltshire border 20 miles west of Salisbury. The town is built 718 feet (219 metres) above sea level on the side of a chalk and greensand hill, which is part of Cranborne Chase, the only significant hilltop settlement in Dorset. It is one of the oldest and highest towns in Britain.
Shaftesbury-沙夫特士伯里乡镇位于英国的(Dorset)多社郡一条靠近(Wiltshire)威特郡边界，Salisbury-沙粒式伯里镇以西20英里的A30公路上。这个乡镇建在Cranborne Chase 的绿砂丘旁边，海拔718英尺(219米)，也是唯一在(Dorset)多社郡里显眼的山丘聚落。它是英国最古老的和海拔最高的的乡镇之一。
In 2001, the town had a population of 6,665 with 3,112 dwellings, only a small increase from 1991. There are currently 2 primary schools and an enlarged secondary school. Major employers include Pork Farms, Stalbridge Linen (a commercial laundry), Guys Marsh Prison, Wessex Electrical and the Royal Mail.
在2001年，全镇人口有6665人，3112户，从1991年起只有的小幅度增长。目前有两所小学和一所扩建的中学。主要的雇主包括Pork Farms-猪肉农场 ，Stalbridge布料（商业洗衣房），Guys Marsh 监狱，Wessex 电器和Royal Mail-皇家邮件。
In Bimport stands the Westminster Memorial Hospital, a small community hospital which has about 20 beds, an accident and emergency department (not 24 hrs) and a range of out-patient clinics. It was constructed in the mid-19th century with a legacy from the then Duke of Westminster.
Many of the older buildings in the town are of the local greensand, while others built from the grey Chilmark limestone, much of which was salvaged from the demolished Shaftesbury Abbey, and have thatched roofs. Tourism is one of the main industries in the town.
The town looks over the Blackmore Vale, part of the River Stour basin. From different viewpoints, it is possible to see at least as far as Glastonbury Tor to the northwest.
The town is famous for Gold Hill, a steep cobbled street featured on the cover of countless books about Dorset and rural England. It was perhaps most famously used as the street in the popular Ridley Scott-directed Hovis bread advertisement used through the 1970s and 1980s. The hill most recently featured in a Morrisons supermarket advert, also for bread. The town is also famous for its ruined abbey and nearby Wardour Castle.
这个镇有座著名的Gold Hill-金山，无数形容Dorset-多社郡和英国乡村的书籍都特别强调那里陡峭的鹅卵石街道。或许最有名的要算是七十到八十年代由Ridley Scott执导的Hovis面包广告片里常见的场景。最近这座山又出现在Morrisons-莫里森超市的广告片中，也是在卖面包。这个镇也因为修道院遗址和附近的Wardour城堡而闻名。
A market is held in the town on Thursdays. The Blackmore Vale is Thomas Hardy’s Vale of the Little Dairies. The town features in Thomas Hardy’s Wessex with the names Shaston and Palladour, of particular significance in Jude the Obscure.
镇上每逢星期四就举办大卖会。Blackmore Vale谷就是Thomas Hardy的著作“小奶场的淡水河谷”的地点。在Thosmas Hardy描绘的Wessex这个地方，这个镇名叫做Shaston和Palladour，特别是在Jude The Obscure-“暧昧的Jude”这一章里别具意义。
Actor Robert Newton, best known for his portrayals of Long John Silver and Bill Sikes in the 1948 David Lean film Oliver Twist, was born in Shaftesbury.
演员Robert Newton在1948年David Lean拍的影片Oliver Twist-“雾都孤儿”里演绎Long John Silver和Bill Sikes的角色都家喻户晓，他就是在Shaftesbury-沙夫特士伯里乡镇出生的当地人。
- History 历史
- See also 另见
Although Shaftesbury’s recorded history dates from Anglo-Saxon times, it may have been the Celtic Caer Palladur. Its first written record as a town is in the Burghal Hidage. Alfred the Great founded a burgh (fortified settlement) here in 880 as a defence in the struggle with the Danish invaders. Alfred and his daughter Ethelgiva founded Shaftesbury Abbey in 888, which was a spur to the growing importance of the town. Athelstan founded three royal mints, which struck pennies bearing the town’s name, and the abbey became the wealthiest Benedictine nunnery in England. On February 20, 981 the relics of St Edward the Martyr were translated from Wareham and received at the abbey with great ceremony, thereafter turning Shaftesbury into a major site of pilgrimage for miracles of healing. In 1240 Cardinal Otto (Oddone di Monferrato), legate to the Apostolic See of Pope Gregory IX visited the abbey and confirmed a charter of 1191, the first entered in the Glastonbury chartulary.
虽然Shaftesbury-沙夫特士伯里镇的历史记载可以追溯到盎格鲁撒克逊时期，它也可能曾经是古代的Celtic Caer Palladur。首度有这个镇的记载是出现在Burghal Hidage这本书里。Alfred-阿尔弗雷德大帝在公元880年建立了一个城堡抵御来自丹麦侵略者的侵犯。阿尔弗雷德和他的女儿Ethelgivazai在公元888年建立Shaftesbury-沙夫特士伯里修道院，促使这个镇成为日益重要的地方。Athelstan国王在这里成立过三家皇家铸币厂，在铜币上印上这个镇的名字，这个修道院也成了全英国最富有的Benedictine教派的修女院。1981年2月20日，公元981年的圣人Edward-爱德华义士的的遗物从从Wareham市移过来，在修道院举办盛大的接收仪式，随后就把Shaftesbury-沙夫特士伯里镇转变成信徒们寻求治疗奇迹的主要朝圣地之一。在1240年，主教Otto-奥托(Oddone di Monferrato)，特派使徒罗马教皇格雷戈里九世参观修道院，并确认了1191宪章，首次纳入在Glastonbury-格拉斯顿伯的特许权登记册里。
King Canute died here in 1035. In the Domesday Book, the town was known as Scaepterbyrg; its ownership was equally shared between king and abbey. In the Middle Ages the abbey was the central focus of the town.
In 1260, a charter to hold a market was granted. In 1392, Richard II confirmed a grant of two markets on different days. By 1340, the mayor had become a recognised figure, sworn in by the steward of the abbess.
In 1539, the last Abbess of Shaftesbury, Elizabeth Zouche, signed a deed of surrender, the (by then extremely wealthy) abbey was demolished, and its lands sold, leading to a temporary decline in the town. Sir Thomas Arundel of Wardour purchased the abbey and much of the town in 1540, but when he was later exiled for treason his lands were forfeit, and the lands passed to Pembroke then Anthony Ashley Cooper, 7th Earl of Shaftesbury, and finally to the Grosvenors.
公元1539年，最后一位沙夫特士伯里修道院院长Elizabeth Zouche-伊丽莎白周切，签署了放弃宣言，把（当时非常富裕的）修道院拆毁，出售土地，导致这个镇声誉日下。Wardour城堡的Thomas Arundel爵士在公元1540年买下了修道院和镇上的大部份土地，但他后来因叛国罪被流放，土地都被没收，转交给Pembroke镇当时Shaftesbury的第七位伯爵Anthony Ashley Cooper，最后才到了Grosvenors伯爵的手中。
Shaftesbury was a parliamentary constituency returning two members from 1296 to the Reform Act of 1832, when it was reduced to one, and in 1884 the separate constituency was abolished.
The town was broadly Parliamentarian in the Civil War, but was in Royalist hands. Wardour Castle fell to Parliamentary forces in 1643; Parliamentary forces surrounded the town in August 1645, when it was a centre of local clubmen activity. The clubmen were arrested and sent to trial in Sherborne. Shaftesbury took no part in the Monmouth Rebellion of 1685.
The town hall was built in 1827 by Earl Grosvenor after the guildhall was pulled down to widen High Street. It has been designated by English Heritage as a grade II listed building. The town hall is next to the 15th century St. Peter’s Church.
The major employers in the 18th and 19th centuries were buttonmaking and weaving. The former became a victim of mechanisation, and this caused unemployment and emigration.
The five turnpikes which met at Shaftesbury ensured that the town had a good coaching trade. The railways, however, bypassed Shaftesbury, and this influenced the subsequent pattern of its growth.
In 1919, Lord Stalbridge sold a large portion of the town, which was purchased by a syndicate and auctioned piece by piece over three days.
Most of the Saxon and Medieval buildings have now been ruined, with most of the town dating from the 18th century to present. Thomas Hardy, whose Wessex name for Shaftesbury was Shaston (or Palladour), wrote:
大部份在撒克逊和中世纪时代的建筑都已经毁了，大部分市镇古迹可以从18世纪追溯至今。Thomas Hardy在Shaftesbury镇的Wessex当地名字是Shaston(或Palladour)，他在书中写道 ：
“Vague imaginings of its castle, its three mints, its magnificent apsidal abbey, the chief glory of south Wessex, its twelve churches, its shrines, chantries, hospitals, its gabled freestone mansions—all now ruthlessly swept away—throw the visitor, even against his will, into a pensive melancholy, which the stimulating atmosphere and limitless landscape around him can scarcely dispel.”
See Also 另见
- St. Mary’s School, Shaftesbury 圣玛丽学院，沙夫特士伯里
- Shaftesbury Abbey 沙夫特士伯里修道院
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Source > Wikipedia at en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shaftesbury
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Word Count > approx. 1000 words in English