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Hardship Clause

Hardship Clause  困苦条款

 

Hardship clause is a clause in a contract that is intended to cover cases in which unforeseen events occur that fundamentally alter the equilibrium of a contract resulting in an excessive burden being placed on one of the parties involved.[1][2]

困苦条款是合同中的条款之一,用意在于包含一个突发事件发生时,根本上改变了合同的平等责任分担,导致另一方承受过重的负担所出现的状况。[1][2]

Hardship clauses typically recognize that parties must perform their contractual obligations even if events have rendered performance more onerous than would reasonably have been anticipated at the time of the conclusion of the contract. However, where continued performance has become excessively burdensome due to an event beyond a party’s reasonable control which it could not reasonably have been expected to have taken into account, the clause can obligate the parties to negotiate alternative contractual terms which reasonably allow for the consequences of the event.

困苦条款一般上都承认,当事人必须履行合同义务,即使事件使到履行承诺比原先订立合约时合理地预见到的还要繁苛得多。然而,当一个无法可合理预料供考量的事件导致继续履行法律责任成为其中一方过度的负荷时,该条款可以规定有关各方重新就可以合理允许的事件后果谈判替代的合同条款。

Relation to force majeure  跟不可抗力的关系

The hardship clause is sometimes used in relation to force majeure, particularly due to the fact that they share similar features and they both cater to situations of changed circumstances. The difference between the two concepts is that hardship is where the performance of the disadvantaged party has become much more burdensome, but not impossible, while force majeure refers to a party’s contractual requirements have become impossible, at least temporarily. Hardship constitutes a reason for a change in the contractual program of the parties. The aim of the parties remains to implement the contract. Force majeure, however, is situated in the context of non-performance, and deals with the suspension or termination of the contract.[3]

困苦条款使用有时也跟不可抗力条款扯上关系,特别是因为他们拥有相似的特点,而且也都用来处理情势变更出现的各种状况这样的事实。这两个概念的差别在于,困苦是在弱势的一方需要更重的负荷来履行合约,但还不是不可能办到,而不可抗力是指合同对其中一方的要求已经成为不可能的任务,至少暂时办不到。困苦就构成了当事人改变合同内容的一个原因。各方的目标仍然是要履行合同中的承诺。但是,不可抗力是在不履行的情况下有效,处理暂停或终止合同的事项。[3]

 

See also  另见

  • Hell or high water clause  地狱或高水位条款
  • Impossibility  不可能的事

 

References  参考文献

[1] ^ Kluwer Law International Force Majeure and Hardship Clauses Retrieved on 14 June 2010

^Kluwer法律国际不可抗力和辛劳困苦条款,于2010年6月14日检索

[2] ^ Trans-Lex.org Definition of Hardship Consequences of Hardship Retrieved on 14 June 2010

^Trans-Lex.org 困难的定义困难的后果,于2010年6月14日检索

[3] ^ Pace Law School Institute of International Commercial Law Review of CISG Retrieved on 22 August 2007

^佩斯法学院国际商法“对“CISG”的检讨,于2007年8月22日检索

 

Categories  分类

  • Contract law  合同

Part of the common law series  普通法系列的一部分

  • Contract formation  合同的订立

Offer and acceptance   邀约和承约 :Mailbox rule  邮箱规则

Mirror image rule  镜像规则 • Invitation to treat  邀请作交易

Firm offer  确定的邀约 • Consideration  代价

  • Defenses against formation  抗辩合约的成立

Lack of capacity  能力不足

Duress  胁迫 • Undue influence  不当的影响

Illusory promise  虚假的承诺 • Statute of frauds  欺诈条例

Non est factum  否认定理契约的答辩

  • Contract interpretation  合同的释义

Parol evidence rule  口头证据规则

Contract of adhesion  附着力合同

Integration clause  集成条款

Contra proferentem  对条文发起人不利的解读

  • Excuses for non-performance  不履行的藉口

Mistake  过失 • Misrepresentation  失实陈述

Frustration of purpose   目的受挫 • Impossibility  不可能性质

Impracticability  不可行性质 • Illegality  不合法

Unclean hands  不洁的手 • Unconscionability  不合情理性质

Accord and satisfaction  协定和满意度

  • Rights of third parties  第三方的权利

Privity of contract  相互关系的合同

Assignment  转让 • Delegation  转授

Novation  约务更替 • Third party beneficiary  第三方受益人

  • Breach of contract  违约

Anticipatory repudiation  预期废除 • Cover  承保

Exclusion clause  摒除条款 • Efficient breach  有效率违约

Deviation  偏差 • Fundamental breach  基本的违反

  • Remedies  补救措施

Specific performance  具体表现

Liquidated damages  算定的赔偿金

Penal damages  刑事赔偿  •  Rescission  撤销

  • Quasi-contractual obligations  半合同法律责任

Promissory estoppel  承诺不反悔

Quantum meruit  合理金额/按劳计酬

  • Related areas of law  相关领域的法律

Conflict of laws  法律冲突 •  Commercial law  商业法

  • Other common law areas  其他普通法适用地区

Tort law  侵权法 · Property law  产权法

Wills, trusts and estates  遗嘱,信托和产业

Criminal law  刑法• Evidence  证据

—— END ——

 

Source > Wikipedia at en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hardship_clause

Translated by > BlogHost

Word Count > approx. 480 words in English

 

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