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Vegan Diet

Vegetarian diet: How to get the best nutrition

如何从素食中摄取最佳营养

 

A well-planned vegetarian diet is a healthy way to meet your nutritional needs. Find out what you need to know about a plant-based diet.

一个精心策划的素食食谱能满足您的营养需求,也是一个健康之道,去找出以植物为本的食谱知道更多内容。

You may follow a vegetarian diet for cultural, religious or ethical reasons. Or you may eat a vegetarian diet to stay healthy and prevent health problems, such as cardiovascular disease. Whatever your reasons for choosing a vegetarian diet, this guide will help you make smart choices to ensure that you meet your daily nutritional needs.

你也许会因为文化,宗教或道德的原因而接受素食的饮食方式,或许是为了健康或避免生病才这么吃,譬如要预防心血管疾病。不论是什么原因,这本指南可以协助你做出明智的选择,确保您得到每日的营养需求。

Indeed, a well-planned vegetarian diet can meet the needs of people of all ages, including children, teenagers, and pregnant or breast-feeding women. The key is to be aware of your nutritional needs so that you plan a diet that meets them. If you aren’t sure how to create a vegetarian diet that’s right for you, talk with your doctor and a registered dietitian.

事实上,一个精心策划的素食食谱都可以满足所有年龄所有人的需求,包括小孩,青少年,孕妇或喂母乳的妇女。关键是要知道你需要哪些营养才可以规划你的食谱来满足需求,如果你无法确定如何开出适合自己的素食食谱,那就需要跟你的医生与合格营养师谈谈。

 

Types of vegetarian diets  素食的种类

When people think about a vegetarian diet, they typically think about a diet that doesn’t include meat, poultry or fish. But vegetarian diets can be further categorized into three types:

每当人们一提起素食,他们就会很刻板地认为这个食谱里没有肉类,家畜或鱼肉,但是素食也可以进一步分成三大类:

Vegan diets exclude meat, poultry, fish, eggs and dairy products — and foods that contain these products.

素食者–排除肉类,家畜,鱼肉,蛋和乳制品以及其他包含这种成份的食品。

Lacto-vegetarian diets exclude meat, fish, poultry and eggs, as well as foods that contain them. Dairy products, such as milk, cheese, yogurt and butter, are allowed in a lacto-vegetarian diet.

奶类素食—排除肉类,鱼肉,家畜和蛋,以及其他包含这些成份的食品,但可以接受鲜奶,乳酪,酸奶和奶油。

Lacto-ovo vegetarian diets exclude meat, fish and poultry, but allow eggs and dairy products.

蛋奶素食—排除肉类,鱼肉和家畜,允许吃蛋和乳制品。

Some people follow a semivegetarian diet — also called a flexitarian diet — which is primarily a plant-based diet but includes meat, dairy, eggs, poultry and fish on occasion or in small quantities.

有些人还实行半素食食谱,也叫做灵活食谱,还是以植物为本,包括肉类,乳制品,蛋,家畜和鱼肉,在某些社交场合里可以小量接受。

 

Getting adequate nutrition  摄取足够的营养

The key to a healthy vegetarian diet — like any diet — is to enjoy a variety of foods. No single food can provide all the nutrients your body needs. The more restrictive a diet is, the more challenging it is to get all the nutrients you need. A vegan diet, for example, eliminates food sources of vitamin B-12, as well as milk products, which are good sources of calcium. Therefore, you may need to make an extra effort to ensure that your vegetarian diet includes sufficient quantities of the following nutrients:

健康素食的关键就跟任何食谱一样是为了享用各种食物,因为没有任何单一的食物可以提供你的身体所需的全部营养,食谱越是局限,摄取所有所需营养就越具有挑战性。譬如说,素食食谱就排除了维生素B-12的食物来源,还有鲜奶制品这个钙质的好来源。因此,你必须多努力确保你的素食食谱里有各种足够的营养含量:

Calcium helps build and maintain strong teeth and bones. Milk and low-fat dairy foods are highest in calcium. Dark green vegetables, such as turnip and collard greens, kale and broccoli, are good plant sources when eaten in sufficient quantities. Calcium-enriched and fortified products, including juices, cereals, soy milk, soy yogurt and tofu, are other options.

钙质可以生出和维持强有力的牙齿和骨骼,牛奶和低脂奶制品的含钙量最高。深绿色的蔬菜如萝卜,羽衣甘蓝叶,甘蓝类蔬菜和西兰花如果吃得够,都是好的食物源。钙质丰富和强有力的食品如果汁,麦片,豆奶,大豆酸奶和豆腐也是其他选项。

Iodine is a component in thyroid hormones, which help regulate metabolism, growth and function of many key organs, such as the brain, heart, kidney and thyroid. Vegans may not consume enough iodine and be at risk of iodine deficiency and possibly goiter. In addition, foods such as soybeans, cruciferous vegetables and sweet potatoes may promote goiter. Because food manufacturers may not use iodized salt in processed foods, vegans may want to ensure that they use salt with iodine at the table or in cooking. Just 1/4 teaspoon provides a significant amount of iodine.

碘是甲状腺激素的组成部分,有助于调节新陈代谢和其他主要器官如大脑,心脏,肾脏和甲状腺的成长和功能,素食者可能摄取的碘不足够而面对缺碘或甲状腺肿大的风险。此外,大豆,十字花科蔬菜,红番薯等食物也可能会造成甲状腺肿大。由于食品厂商不一定会在加工食品中加入碘盐,素食者或许得确保餐桌上或烹煮时有加盐和碘,只需四分之一汤匙就有相当含量的碘在内。

Iron is a crucial component of red blood cells. Dried beans and peas, lentils, enriched cereals, whole-grain products, dark leafy green vegetables and dried fruit are good sources of iron. Because iron isn’t as easily absorbed from plant sources, the recommended intake of iron for vegetarians is almost double that recommended for nonvegetarians. To help your body absorb iron, eat foods rich in vitamin C, such as strawberries, citrus fruits, tomatoes, cabbage and broccoli, at the same time as you’re eating iron-containing foods.

铁是红血球的重要组成成份,干豆和豌豆,扁豆,多营养谷物,全麦制品,深绿叶蔬菜和干果里都有铁质。由于铁质不容易被植物吸收,就得建议素食者吃得比非素食者多一倍这些蔬菜,好让你的身体可以吸收铁质,也要吃维生素C丰富的食物如草莓,柑橘类水果,番茄,白菜和西兰花,同时也吃其他含铁质的食物。

Omega-3 fatty acids are important for cardiovascular health as well as eye and brain development. Vegetarian diets that do not include fish and eggs are generally low in active forms of omega-3 fats. Because conversion of the plant-based omega-3 to the types used by humans is inefficient, you may want to consider fortified products or supplements or both.

Omega-3脂肪酸对心血管健康,以及眼睛和大脑的发育都重要,素食者的食谱里如果没有鱼和蛋一般上都比较缺乏活性的Omega-3脂肪酸。由于从食物的Omega-3转换成人体需要的成份不足,你或许要考虑营养成份较强的食品或补充剂或两者兼而有之。

Protein helps maintain healthy skin, bones, muscles and organs. Eggs and dairy products are good sources, and you don’t need to eat large amounts to meet your protein needs. You can also get sufficient protein from plant-based foods if you eat a variety of them throughout the day. Plant sources include soy products and meat substitutes, legumes, lentils, nuts, seeds and whole grains.

蛋白质有助于维持皮肤,骨骼,肌肉和器官的健康。鸡蛋和奶制品是很好的来源,你不需要大量地吃来满足您的蛋白质需求。 如果你能够在一天内吃很多种,也可以从植物为本的食物中得到足够的蛋白质。植物食品的来源包括豆制品,肉类替代品,豆类,扁豆,坚果,种子和粗粮。

Vitamin B-12 is necessary to produce red blood cells and prevent anemia. This vitamin is found almost exclusively in animal products, so it can be difficult to get enough B-12 on a vegan diet. Vitamin B-12 deficiency may go undetected in people who eat a vegan diet. This is because the vegan diet is rich in a vitamin called folate, which may mask deficiency in vitamin B-12 until severe problems occur. For this reason, it’s important for vegans to consider vitamin supplements, vitamin-enriched cereals and fortified soy products.

我们需要维生素B-12来制造红血球和避免贫血,这种维生素几乎都只能在动物身上找到,因此就很难从素食的食谱中摄取足够的量。素食者可能无法察觉自己缺乏维生素B-12,这是因为素食的食谱中有一种叫做叶酸的维生素,可能会掩饰维生素B-12的不足,直到严重的问题出现。因此,素食者必须考虑多吃维生素补充剂,维生素丰富的谷物和强化营养的豆制品。

Vitamin D plays an important role in bone health. Vitamin D is added to cow’s milk, some brands of soy and rice milk (be sure to check the label), and some cereals and margarines. However, if you don’t eat enough fortified foods and have limited sun exposure, you may need supplementation with vitamin D-2 (derived from plants).

维生素D对骨骼的健康有重要的作用,有一些牛奶,一些品牌的大豆和水稻牛奶(一定要检查标签),以及一些谷物和人造黄油里都有添加维生素D在内 。不过,如果你没有吃足够的营养强化食品以及适度地晒太阳,你可能就需要补充(从植物中提取出来的)维生素D-2。

Zinc is an essential component of many enzymes and plays a role in cell division and in formation of proteins. Like iron, zinc is not as easily absorbed from plant sources as it is from animal products. Cheese is a good option if you eat dairy products. Plant sources of zinc include whole grains, soy products, legumes, nuts and wheat germ.

锌是许多酶素的重要组成部分,在细胞分裂和蛋白质的形成过程中起着一定的作用。铁和锌就不容易被植物吸收,因为这是动物身上的产品。如果你有吃乳制品的话,乳酪是一个不错的选择。植物里含锌的有五谷杂粮,豆制品,豆类,坚果和小麦胚芽。

 

Getting started  入门

If you’re not following a vegetarian diet but you’re thinking of trying it, here are some ideas to help you get started:

如果你还没开始素食想要尝试,这里有一些概念供您开始:

Ramp up  逐步提高

Each week increase the number of meatless meals you already enjoy, such as spaghetti with tomato sauce or vegetable stir-fry.

每个星期都增加你已经在享用的无肉素食餐,如意大利麵加番茄酱或炒菜。

Learn to substitute  学会取代

Take favorite recipes and try them without meat. For example, make vegetarian chili by leaving out the ground beef and adding an extra can of black beans. Or make fajitas using extra-firm tofu rather than chicken. You may be surprised to find that many dishes require only simple substitutions.

拿一些自己喜欢的食谱来试,但要去掉肉类。譬如说,做辣椒蔬菜,没有牛肉,加一罐黑豆,或者用更多豆干去做墨西哥饼而不是用鸡肉来做。你会很惊讶地发现,很多菜肴都可以简单地加减替换。

Branch out  分支出去

Scan the Internet for vegetarian menus. Buy or borrow vegetarian cookbooks. Check out ethnic restaurants to sample new vegetarian cuisines. The more variety you bring to your vegetarian diet, the more likely you’ll be to meet all your nutritional needs.

上网找素食菜单,买或借素食烹饪书,上传统餐厅品尝新的素食菜肴,你的素食食谱有越多种类的菜肴,你就能摄取足够的营养来满足自己的营养需求。

 

By Mayo Clinic staff 。Mayo诊所的员工撰文

 

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Source > National Geographic Environment  国家地理杂志环境版

Translated by > BlogHost

Word Count > approx. 1080 words in English

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