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Vegan Effects

Side Effects of Becoming a Vegetarian

成为素食者的副作用

 

A vegetarian diet is a healthy choice if you pay attention to nutritional requirements and follow a balanced eating plan. The Mayo Clinic created a vegetarian food pyramid that recommends daily food intake of six servings of grains, five servings of nuts, beans, legumes and other protein foods, four servings of vegetables, two of fruit and two of unsaturated fats. (See References 5) Inattention to dietary needs can create side effects that are unpleasant and unhealthy. For vegans, who avoid all animal products, countering potential dietary deficiencies is particularly important.

如果你注重营养的需求和追随一套平衡的饮食计划,素食食谱就是一项健康的选择。Maya诊所建立了一套金字塔式的素食表推荐每日要吃的六份谷物,五份坚果,干豆,豆类和其他蛋白质食物,四份蔬菜,两份水果和两份不饱和脂肪(见参考文献5)。忽视饮食需要会产生一些不舒服和不健康的副作用,对素食者来说,避免吃任何动物的肉类就更需要其他食物来源去应付营养不足的潜在问题。

 

Vitamin B12 Deficiency  缺乏维生素B12

If you are a strict vegetarian and eat no dairy, eggs or other animal products, your diet may be deficient in vitamin B12. Symptoms of vitamin B12 deficiency include anemia, weakness, poor balance and tingling in the arms and legs, according to the University of Maryland Medical Center. B12 is important for metabolism, maintenance of the central nervous system and the formation of red blood cells. Vegetarian sources of B12 include fortified grains and nutritional yeast, as well as vitamin supplements. (See References 1)

如果你是个严格的素食主义者,不吃乳制品,蛋或其他动物食品,你的食谱中可能会缺乏维生素B-12。根据马里兰大学医疗中心的报告,缺乏维生素B-12的症状有贫血,虚弱,平衡感差以及手脚刺痛。B-12对新陈代谢,中枢神经系统和红血球的形成与维护都重要。素食者的B12食物来源包括一些强化营养的谷物和营养酵母,还有维生素补充剂(见参考文献1)。

 

Iron Deficiency 缺铁性贫血

The most readily absorbed iron is available in foods many vegetarians do not consume: red meats, poultry and fish. A lack of sufficient iron can cause anemia. Symptoms of low iron include exhaustion, weakness, slow cognitive development, chills and increased susceptibility to infection. Women who suffer from iron deficiency can give birth to premature or low birth weight infants. But the type of iron found in beans, lentils, enriched grains, spinach, raisins and tofu is adequate for normal nutritional needs. The National Institutes for Health recommends that vegetarians get twice as much iron as non-vegetarians because the type of iron they consume is more difficult to absorb. NIH advises vegetarians to increase iron absorption by taking vitamin C or consuming citrus with plant-based iron sources. (See References 4)

最容易被人体吸收的铁质都在许多素食者不吃的食品中如红肉,家禽和鱼类。因此,缺铁可以导致贫血,缺铁的症状包括疲惫,虚弱,认知过程缓慢,畏寒,以及容易被细菌感染。缺铁的妇女可以难产或产下体重轻的婴儿。但是,豆类,扁豆,加工谷物,菠菜,葡萄干和豆腐里的铁质都能提供正常的营养需求。国家健康研究院建议素食者摄取比非素食者多两倍的铁质,因为这类铁质比较不容易被身体吸收,另外也劝告素食者要多摄取维生素C或吃更多含铁质丰富的柑橘类植物来增加铁质的吸收(见参考文献4)。

 

Zinc Deficiency 缺锌

Zinc helps you to smell and taste. It’s also important for the immune system — zinc helps wounds heal, is a factor in cell division and cell growth and contributes to the process of carbohydrate break down. Zinc is found in high protein foods like meats and dark meat poultry, so vegans and many vegetarians can develop a zinc deficiency. That could result in poor appetite, frequent infections, hair loss and a host of other symptoms. One good way for vegetarians to consume zinc is by eating legumes, peanuts and peanut butter, although zinc from animal protein is more readily absorbed by the body. (See References 3)

锌可以加强你的嗅觉和味觉,对你的免疫系统也很重要,譬如助你愈合伤口,促进细胞的分裂与生长,在碳水化合物分解的过程中做出贡献。锌可以在高蛋白食物如肉类和深色家畜的肉类里找到,因此许多素食者都会缺锌,造成食欲不佳,经常感染细菌,掉头发和其他症状。素食者摄取锌的一个好办法是食用豆类,花生和花生酱,虽然动物的蛋白质里的锌比较容易被人体吸收(见参考文献3)。

 

Calcium and Bone Loss 钙和骨质的流失

Strong bones need calcium and one of the best ways to get it is from dairy products. If milk, yogurt and butter aren’t part of your diet, look for cereals, breads and juices that have added calcium, fortified tofu, kale, broccoli and Chinese cabbage. Calcium shortages can lead to thinning bone density and osteoporosis, dental problems and other medical conditions. Calcium helps blood to circulate through the body, muscles to move, nerves to transmit messages from the brain, and it releases hormones and enzymes. The NIH points out that calcium supplements can interfere with some medications so you should check with your health care provider before adding supplements to any diet. (See References 6)

强硬的骨骼需要钙质,其中一个最好的摄取来源就是来自奶制品。如果牛奶,酸奶和黄油不是你的饮食中的一部分,那么就找谷类,面包,果汁这些有较多钙质和拥有丰富钙质的豆腐,羽衣甘蓝,花椰菜和大白菜来吃。缺钙会导致骨质密度稀薄和骨质疏松,牙齿问题和其他病况。钙质促进全身的血液循环,肌肉的运动,神经元传送发自大脑的讯息,释放荷尔蒙和酶。国家健康研究院指出,钙质补充剂会干扰某些药物,因此在添加任何补充剂在你的食谱里以前,你必须先跟你的医疗保健供应人查询清楚(见参考文献6)。

 

References 参考文献

1. University of Maryland Medical Center: Vitamin B12 — Side Effects

美国马里兰大学医疗中心:维生素B12的副作用

2. University of Maryland Medical Center: Vitamin B12 Benefits

美国马里兰大学医疗中心:维生素B12的优点

3. University of Maryland Medical Center: Zinc in Diet — All Information

美国马里兰大学医疗中心:饮食中的锌的所有资讯

4. National Institutes for Health Office of Dietary Supplements: Iron

国家健康研究院的膳食补充剂办公室:铁

5. Mayo Clinic: Vegetarian Diet: How to Get the Best Nutrition

Mayo诊所:如何从素食中摄取最佳营养

6. National Institutes for Health Office of Dietary Supplements: Calcium

国家健康研究院的膳食补充剂办公室:钙

by Benna Crawford, Demand Media 由BennaCrawford点播媒体提供

 

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Source > National Geographic Environment  国家地理杂志环境版

Translated by > BlogHost

Word Count > approx. 620 words in English

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