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Osteology

Osteology  骨骼学

 

Osteology is the scientific study of bones, practiced by osteologists. A subdiscipline of anatomy, anthropology, and archeology, osteology is a detailed study of the structure of bones, skeletal elements, teeth, morphology, function, disease, pathology, the process of ossification (from cartilaginous molds), the resistance and hardness of bones (biophysics), etc. often used by scientists with identification of human remains with regard to age, death, sex, growth, and development in a biocultural context.

骨骼学是一项科学研究,由骨科学家来做。这是解剖学,人类学和考古学的一个分支学科。骨科是一个详细研究骨骼结构,骨骼元素,牙齿,形态,功能,疾病,病理学,骨化过程(软骨模具),骨骼的阻力和硬度(生物物理学)等经常被科学家用来鉴定人类遗骸的年龄,死因,性别,成长,以及在生物文化背景下的发展。

Osteology and osteologists should not be confused with the alternative medical practice known as osteopathy and its practitioners, osteopaths.

骨骼学和骨科学家不应该跟另一个医学领域里的整骨及其从业人员混淆。

 

Methods 方法

A typical analysis will include:

  • an inventory of the skeletal elements present
  • a dental inventory
  • aging data, based upon epiphyseal fusion and dental eruption (for subadults) and deterioration of the pubic symphysis or sternal end of ribs (for adults)
  • stature and other metric data
  • ancestry
  • non-metric traits
  • pathology and/or cultural modifications

典型的分析包括:

  • 现成的骨骼元素清单
  • 牙科清单
  • 根据(未成年)骨骺融合和牙齿突长,以及(成人)耻骨愈合或肋骨的胸骨尾端的恶化得来的老化数据。
  • 身材和其他度量数据
  • 祖先族谱
  • 非度量的特征
  • 病理亦或文化

 

Applications 应用

Osteological approaches are frequently applied to investigations in disciplines such as forensic science, physical anthropology and archaeology, and has a place in research on topics including:

骨学方法通常都用在法医学,体质人类学和考古学等学科的调查,在以下课题的研究占有一定的地位:

  • Health  健康
  • Demography  人口
  • Diet  饮食
  • Disease  疾病
  • activity patterns  活动模式
  • physique  体质
  • genetics of early populations  早期人口的遗传
  • population migration  人口迁徙
  • Ancient warfare  古代战争
  • social inequality  社会不平等
  • identification of unknown remains  鉴定不明的遗骸
  • criminal investigations  刑事侦查
  • war crimes  战争罪

 

See also 另见

  • Osteometric points  骨量点

 

External Links 外部链接

  • British Association for Biological Anthropology and Osteoarchaeology

英国的生物人类学和骨骼考古学协会

 

Categories 分类

  • Osteology  骨骼学
  • Physical anthropology  体质人类学
  • Musculoskeletal system  肌肉骨骼
  • Anthropology  人类学

—— END ——

 

Source > Wikipedia at en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Osteology

Translated by > BlogHost

Word Count > approx.300 words in English

 

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