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Vis Major

Vis Major  主要可见

 

Vis major (play /ˌvɪs ˈmeɪdʒər/; in Latin ‘a superior force’) is a greater or superior force; an irresistible force. It may be a loss that results immediately from a natural cause that could not have been prevented by the exercise of prudence, diligence and care. It is also termed as vis divina or superior force.

主要可见(拉丁语是指“优势”)是一个更大的优势力量,一种不可抗拒的力量。它可能是一个审慎,尽力和小心还是无法预防损失的自然成因所造成的损失。它也被称为vis divina或优势力量。

It is an irresistible violence; inevitable accident or act of God. Its nature and power absolutely uncontrollable, for example, the inroads of a hostile army or forcible robberies, may relieve from liability from contract.

这是个不可阻挡的破坏行为;不可避免的意外或天灾。它的性质和力量绝对无法控制,例如,敌方军队或强行抢劫的势力介入,就可以缓解合同中的法律责任。

This term has specific meaning in regard to strict liability. Strict liability in the law of torts allows for the accrual of liability against an actor where there is no fault or proximate cause given the damages arose from their participation in an ultrahazardous activity, i.e. blasting, damming of water, etc. However, “vis major” offers an exception to such liability. In Fletcher v. Rylands In the Exchequer Chamber, L.R. 1 Ex. 265, 1866, affirmed in the House of Lords on appeal in Rylands v. Fletcher L.R. 3 H.L. 330, the exception of vis major is introduced:

这个术语在严格责任方面有特别的含义。在侵权法中,严格责任允许一名行事者在没有人犯错或没有近因的情况下参与高度危险的活动时,如爆破, 水坝破裂等等造成的损伤不必负责赔偿。不过,“重大事件“对这种赔偿责任则有例外。在Fletcher诉Rylands(财政大臣厅内,LR 1 Ex.265,1866年)案中,众议院上议院在Rylands诉Fletcher(LR 3 HL 330)上诉案里肯定了“大事件”也有例外之处:

“[Defendant] can excuse himself by showing that the escape [of a dangerous substance] was owing to the plaintiff’s default; or perhaps that the escape was the consequence of vis major, or the act of God… [emphasis added]” -Blackburn J Fletcher v. Rylands L.R. 1 Ex. 265, 1866.

“[被告]可以不必负责,但必须证明躲避[危险性质]是原告的错,或者躲避是因为重大事件或天灾的结果….. [特别强调] “Fletchers诉Rylands LR 1 Ex.265,1866。

The existence of vis major, or an act of God, will preclude the use of the theory of strict liability given the impossibility of anticipating such an event. (Think of a dam breaking after a hurricane where there is no negligence found on the part of the owner/operator of the dam.)

由于此类事件无法预见,大事件或天灾的存在将预先排除使用严格责任的理论。(想象一个飓风过后的破坝,在拥有人/经营者那里找不到任何疏忽的行为)。

 

See also  另见

  • Force majeure 不可抗力

 

References 参考文献

  • Black’s Law Dictionary, P.1567, 7th Edn.,

布莱克法律词典,P.1567,第七版。

  • Mitra’s Legal & Commercial Dictionary – 4th Edn., Eastern Law House, Page 790

Mitra法律和商业词典 – 第4版,东方律师楼,790页。

  • Prosser Wade and Schwartz’s Torts: Cases and Materials, 11th Edn., Foundation Press, P. 694

Prosser Wade与Schwartz的侵权法:案例与资料,第11版,基金会出版社,第694页。

Categories 分类

  • Contract law 合同法

Part of the common law series 普通法系列的一部分

  • Contract formation 合同的订立

Offer and acceptance 邀约和承约:Mailbox rule 邮箱规则

Mirror image rule 镜像规则 • Invitation to treat 邀请作交易

Firm offer 确定的邀约 • Consideration 代价

  • Defenses against formation 抗辩合约的成立

Lack of capacity 能力不足

Duress 胁迫• Undue influence 不当的影响

Illusory promise 虚假的承诺• Statute of frauds 欺诈条例

Non est factum 否认定理契约的答辩

  • Contract interpretation 合同的释义

Parol evidence rule 口头证据规则

Contract of adhesion 附着力合同

Integration clause 集成条款

Contra proferentem 对条文发起人不利的解读

  • Excuses for non-performance 不履行的藉口

Mistake 过失 • Misrepresentation 失实陈述

Frustration of purpose 目的受挫 • Impossibility 不可能性质

Impracticability 不可行性质 • Illegality 不合法

Unclean hands 不洁的手 • Unconscionability 不合情理性质

Accord and satisfaction 协定和满意度

  • Rights of third parties 第三方的权利

Privity of contract 相互关系的合同

Assignment 转让 • Delegation 转授

Novation 约务更替 • Third party beneficiary 第三方受益人

  • Breach of contract 违约

Anticipatory repudiation 预期废除• Cover 承保

Exclusion clause 摒除条款 • Efficient breach 有效率违约

Deviation 偏差 • Fundamental breach 基本的违反

  • Remedies 补救措施

Specific performance 具体表现

Liquidated damages 算定的赔偿金

Penal damages 刑事赔偿 • Rescission 撤销

  • Quasi-contractual obligations 半合同法律责任

Promissory estoppel 承诺不反悔

Quantum meruit 合理金额/按劳计酬

  • Related areas of law 相关领域的法律

Conflict of laws 法律冲突 • Commercial law 商业法

  • Other common law areas 其他普通法适用地区

Tort law 侵权法 · Property law 产权法

Wills, trusts and estates 遗嘱,信托和产业

Criminal law 刑法 • Evidence 证据

—— END ——

 

Source > Wikipedia at en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vis_major

Translated by > BlogHost

Word Count > approx.330 words

 

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