Home > Archi:建築 > Vestibule 门厅/玄关/前庭

Vestibule 门厅/玄关/前庭

Vestibule  门厅 / 玄关 / 前庭

A vestibule (play /ˈvɛstɨbjuːl/) is a lobby, entrance hall, or passage between the entrance and the interior of a building.

门厅(播音vɛstɨbjuːl)是一个建筑入口和内部之间的大厅,入口大堂或者只是一个通道处。

The same term can apply to structures in modern or ancient roman architecture. In modern architecture vestibule typically refers to a small room or hall between an entrance and the interior of the building or house. In Roman architecture, vestibule (Latin: vestibulum) referred to a partially enclosed area between the interior of the house and the street.

这个名词也可以用在现代或古罗马建筑的结构上,现代建筑的前庭通常是指建筑或房子的入口与内部之间的一个小室或大厅。在古罗马建筑里,前庭(拉丁文:vertibulum)是指房子和街道之间的一个局部封闭的地方。

 

Contents  内容

1 Modern usage  现代用法

1.1 Railroad use  铁路用途

2 Ancient usage  古代用法

3 See also  参阅

4 References  参考文献

 

Modern Usage  现代用法

In contemporary usage, a vestibule constitutes an area surrounding the exterior door. It acts as an ante-chamber between the exterior and the interior structure. Often it connects the doorway to a lobby or hallway. It is the space one occupies once inside the door, but not yet into the main interior of the building.

在当代的用法中,门厅构成了围绕门外的地区,作为内部与外部结构之间的一个前室,通常都连接了进入大厅的走道或过道。这是个一进门就会先进入的地方,但尚未进入到建筑的内部主体。

Although vestibules are common in private residences as a modified mud room, they are especially prevalent in buildings designed to elicit a sense of Much grandeur, such as government buildings. The residence of the White House in the United States is just such an example. It contains a vestibule between the entrance at the North portico and the main interior hall. Many government buildings mimic the classical architecture from which the vestibule originates.

虽然前庭在私人住宅里都普遍地被改装成泥房(潔淨處),但是在政府大楼这样的建筑里特别被设计来凸显其宏伟与堂皇,门厅尤为显著。美国的白宫住所就是这样的一个例子,在北门廊和主要的内厅之间的入口处都有一个门厅,很多政府大楼也模仿了古典建筑里的门厅设计。

A purely utilitarian use of vestibules in modern buildings is to create an “air lock” entry. Such vestibules consist of merely a set of inner doors and a set of outer doors. The intent of such vestibules is to reduce air infiltration to the building by having only one set of doors open at any given time. This can reduce heating and air conditioning loads.

现代建筑里要发挥门厅的纯粹功能就是要创造出一个“封气”的入口,这种门厅就只是一组内门和一组外门而已,目的是要在任何时候只看一组门来减少空气渗透进入建筑里,这样就可以减少热气和空调的负荷。

Railroad use 铁路用途

The vestibule on a railroad passenger car is an enclosed area at the end of the carbody, usually separated from the main part of the interior by a door, which is power-operated on most modern equipment. Entrance to and exit from the car is through the side doors, which lead into the vestibule. When passenger cars are coupled, their vestibules are joined by mating faceplate and diaphragm assemblies to create a weather-tight seal for the safety and comfort of passengers who are stepping from car to car. In British usage the term refers to the part of the carriage where the passenger doors are located; this can be at the ends of the carriage (on long-distance stock) or at the 1/4 and 3/4 of length positions (typical on modern suburban stock).

客运铁路车厢里的门厅是车尾一个封闭的区块,通常都用一道门来区分车厢内部,都是电动的现代配备,进出车厢都要通过一个侧门进入门厅。当车厢耦合时,两边的门厅就用衔接面板和隔膜组件连接在一起,全天候密封式让乘客安全又舒适地上下车。在英国使用的术语是指乘客车门所在的那一部份车厢,可以在车厢尾端,也可以在四分之一和四分之三的位置(在郊區的現代車型中很典型)。

 

Ancient Usage  古代用法

Vestibules were common in ancient Greek temples. Due to the construction techniques available at the time, it was not possible to build large spans. Consequently many entrance ways had two rows of columns that supported the roof and created a distinct space around the entrance.

前庭的设计在古代的希腊庙宇里都很普遍,由于受到那个时代的施工技术所限,就不可能建造跨度大的空旷大厅,结果许多入口通道两旁都有两排柱子支撑着屋顶,在入口的地方创造出独特的空间。

In ancient Roman architecture, the origin of the term, a vestibule was a space between the interior of a building and the street. The structure was a mixture between a modern hall and porch. Upon entering a Roman house or domus, one would have to pass through the vestibule before entering the atrium.

在古罗马的建筑学里,门厅这个名词原本是指街道和建筑之间的室内空间,这种结构结合了现代大厅和走廊的元素。在进入罗马的房子或豪宅时,就会先经过前庭才进入中庭。

From the fifth century vestibules were used in Christian churches in both the east and west.

从第五世纪起,门厅的设计就在东西方的基督教堂里被采用。

 

See Also  参阅

Propylaeum  前殿

Genkan 玄关

Vestibule at Wiktionary  维基字典里的门厅

 

References 参考文献

^ Vestibule. The Oxford English Dictionary. http://www.oed.com Online edition, December 2006

^前庭。牛津英语词典。http://www.oed.com  网络版,2006年12月

^ Tarbel, F.B.. “A History of Ancient Greek Art.”. Retrieved 2006-03-02.

^ Tarbel,FB。“古希腊艺术的历史。” 2006-03-02检索。

^ McManus, Barbara. “Sample Plan of a Roman House”. VRoma. The College of New Rochelle. Retrieved 2006-03-02.

^麦克马纳斯,芭芭拉。“罗马房子的样品图”。VRoma。新罗谢尔学院。2006-03-02检索。

^  “Vestibule (Porch)”. Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. 1913.

^“前庭(露台)”。 天主教百科全书。纽约:罗伯特爱伯登公司。 1913年。

 

Categories  分类

Rooms, Spaces, and Architectural Elements  房间,空间,建筑设计元素

Public Areas 公共场所

Airport lounge 机场休息室

Auditorium 礼堂

Cafeteria 餐饮店

Classroom 课室

Changing room 更衣室

Conference hall 会议厅

Doctor’s office 医生办公室

Function hall 聚会厅

Mailroom 邮件室

Library 图书馆

Lobby 大厅

Office 办公室

Refectory 食堂 /饭厅

Restroom 洗手间 /卫生间

Security 保安 / 保全

Waiting room 等候室 / 候车室

Passages and Spaces 通道与空间

Alcove 壁龛

Atrium 中庭

Balcony 阳台

Breezeway 通风廊

Corridor 走廊

Deck 甲板

Elevator 电梯

Emergency exit 紧急出口

Escalator 自动扶梯

Entryway / Genkan 入口处 / 玄关

Foyer 前庭 / 堂前

Hallway 礼堂

Loft 阁楼

Loggia 走廊

Nook 小角落

Patio 天井

Pedway 高架走道

Pergola 绿荫廊道

Porch 露台

porte-cochère 前庭门廊

Portico 廊

Ramp 斜坡道

Secret passage 秘密通道

Skyway 天桥

Spear closet 矛头角

Stairway 楼梯

Terrace 天台

Veranda 走廊

Vestibule 前庭 / 门厅

Wheelchair ramp 轮椅坡道

Utility and Storage 工用与存储

Attic 顶楼

Basement 地下室

Box Room / Carport 箱室 / 车库

Cloakroom 衣帽间

Closet 橱柜

Electrical room 电气房

Equipment room 机房

Furnace room / Boiler room 炉房 / 锅炉房

Garage 车房

Janitorial closet 卫生柜 / 清洁橱

Laundry room / Utility room 洗衣房 / 工作间

Mechanical room / floor 机械房 / 层

Pantry 茶水处 / 杂物处

Root cellar 地窖

Semi-basement 半地下室

Studio 工作室

Server room 伺服器机房

Wardrobe 衣柜

Workshop 车间 / 工作室 / 工房

Vault 保险库

Wine cellar 酒窖

Wiring closet / Demarcation point 配线房 / 划界点

Shared Residential Rooms 共用住宅房间

Billiard room 桌球室

Bonus room 备用房

Common room 公共房

Common Room (university) 公共休息室 (大学)

Conversation pit 闲聊坑

Den 小窝

Dining room 餐室 / 饭厅

Drawing room 小客厅

Family room 家人聚合室

Great room 大厅

Hearth room 壁炉房 / 灶房

Home office 住家办公室

Kitchen 厨房

Kitchenette 小厨房

Library 图书馆

Living room / Lounge / Sitting room 客厅/ 休闲室 / 客厅

Man cave 人洞 / 私房

Media room or Home theater 媒体室或家庭影院

Mehmaan khana 小客厅

Recreation room 娱乐室 /康乐室

Shrines 神坛

Study 书室

Student lounge 学生休息室

Sunroom / Solarium 日光室 / 观景室

Private Rooms 私人房间

Bathroom / Toilet (room) 浴室 / 厕所 (间)

Bedroom / Guest room 卧室 / 客房

Boudoir 闺房

Cabinet 内阁

Jack and Jill bathroom 两房共用浴室

Nursery 托儿所

Safe room 安全房

State room 大堂 / 国宾厅

Suite 套房

Walk-in closet 步入式衣橱

Great House Areas 大房子区块

Ballroom 舞厅

Butler’s pantry 管家的杂物间

Buttery 酒窖

Drawing room 小客厅

Fainting room 慵懒室

Great chamber 主厅 / 主室

Great hall 大堂

Larder 贮藏室

Long gallery 长廊

Lumber room 暗房

Parlour 会客室

Root cellar 地窖

Salon 客厅

Saucery 调味处

Scullery 碗碟间

Servants’ hall 仆人厅

Servants’ quarters 佣人宿舍

Smoking room 吸烟室

Solar 太阳能

Spicery 香料间

Still room 酵房

Undercroft 贮藏室

Other Areas 其他区块

Barn 谷仓

Boathouse 船屋

Conservatory 暖房 / 温室

Gym 健身房

Loading dock 装卸码头

Moon gate 月亮门

Outhouse 厕所 / 外屋

Secondary suite 单房 / 附属屋

Shed 棚 / 小屋

Stable 马房

Storm cellar or Storm room 风暴地窖或避风室

Architectural Elements 建筑设计元素

Arch 拱

Ceiling 天花板

Colonnade 柱廊 / 列柱

Column 柱子

Courtyard 庭院

Fireplace 壁炉

Floor 地板

Gate 前门

Lighting 照明

Medaillon 圆雕

Ornament 点缀物

Swimming pool 游泳池

Vault 保险库

Wet bar 湿吧台

Roof 屋顶

Related Terms 相关术语

Building 建筑

Furniture 家具

House 房子

House plan 房子平面图

Rooms 房间

 

—– END —–

 

Source > Wikipedia at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vestibule_(architecture)

Translated by > BlogHost — hkTan

Word Count > approx. 870 words in English

 

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Categories: Archi:建築 Tags: ,
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