Home > Archi:建築 > Cloister 迴廊

Cloister 迴廊

Cloister 迴廊

A cloister (from Latin claustrum, “enclosure”) is a rectangular open space surrounded by covered walks or open galleries, with open arcades on the inner side, running along the walls of buildings and forming a quadrangle or garth. The attachment of a cloister to a cathedral or church, commonly against a warm southern flank, usually indicates that it is (or once was) part of a monastic foundation, “forming a continuous and solid architectural barrier… that effectively separates the world of the monks from that of the serfs and workmen, whose lives and works went on outside and around the cloister.”

廻廊(拉丁文claustrum,“围墙”)是一个被有盖走道或开放式走廊围绕的长方形开放空间,内侧有拱廊,沿着建筑物的墙壁形成一个四边形或中庭。大教堂或教堂里的迴廊通常都靠向建筑的南翼,就表示这是(曾经是)修道院的一部份地基,“形成了一道连续又坚固的建筑屏障。。。有效地把修道士跟农奴和工人们隔开来,让他们在迴廊外面和周围生活与工作。”

Cloistered (or claustral) life is also another name for the life of a monk or nun in the enclosed religious orders; the modern English term enclosure is used in contemporary Catholic church law to mean cloistered, and cloister is sometimes used as a metonymic synonym for monastery.

迴廊式(与世隔绝或遁世)的生活是修道士或修女在封闭的宗教教条下生活的另一个名称;现代英语里的围墙这个字在当代天主教堂的律法里使用的意思是与世隔绝,而迴廊有时候也被当成是修道院的转喻同义词来用。

Historically, the early medieval cloister had several antecedents, the peristyle court of the Greco-Roman domus, the atrium and its expanded version that served as forecourt to early Christian basilicas, and certain semi-galleried courts attached to the flanks of early Syrian churches. Walter Horn suggests that the earliest coenobitic communities, which were established in Egypt by Saint Pachomius, did not result in cloister construction, as there were no lay serfs attached to the community of monks, thus no separation within the walled community was required; Horn finds the earliest prototypical cloisters in some exceptional late fifth-century monastic churches in southern Syria, such as the Convent of Saints Sergios and Bacchos, at Umm-is-Surab (AD 489), and the colonnaded forecourt of the convent of Id-Dêr, but nothing similar appeared in the semieremitic Irish monasteries’ clustered roundhouses nor in the earliest Benedictine collective communities of the West.

史上早期的中世纪修道院有几个前例,比如希腊罗马豪宅里的列柱庭院,中庭以及延伸的设计版本,都成了早期基督教大会堂的前院圣殿,以及依附着早期叙利亚教堂侧翼而建的半长廊庭院。(Walter Horn)沃尔特霍恩认为,早期那些由(Saint Pachomius)圣巴绰米尔士在埃及成立的僧团社群并没有形成迴廊的格局,因为修道士的社区里并没有跟普通的农奴一起生活,因此就不需要围墙来隔开不同的社群;霍恩在叙利亚南部的教堂发现晚期第五世纪的修道院里的早期迴廊雏形有例外之处,比如位于Umm-is-Surab(公元489年)的(Saint Sergiois)圣瑟基尔和(Bacchos)巴绰士女修道院以及(Id-Der)爱德女修道院那些柱廊前院,但是又跟半隐士的爱尔兰修道院那些聚落式圆形屋或者早期西方本笃会的群居社群没有什么类似之处。

One of the earliest visual representations of the claustral plan is the Carolingian plan of St. Gall, a copy made at Reichenau of a scheme worked out at the two reforming synods held at Aachen, 816 and 817. Though cloisters served functions of quiet meditation or a study garden, the uses of the surrounding buildings in the St. Gall plan, each entered only through the covered porches, show how central the cloister was to the communal life: on the eastern side stood the calefactoria or warming room, the sole heated space, with above it the dormitory; on the south side the refectory, with above it the vestiarium (“vestiary”); on the west side the cellar for wines and beer with above it the larder.

其中一个迴廊平面图最早的视觉表现手法是(Saint Gall)圣高尔的卡洛林风格平面图,是在816年跟817年在德国(Aachen)亚琛市展开的一项计划,于两次宗教改革会议中制定,在有修院岛之称的(Reichenau)赖兴瑙岛上复制了一份。虽然迴廊是用来静思冥想或当作学习园地,但是圣高尔平面图里的周边建筑只能通过有盖的露台进入,其用途显示迴廊才是社群生活的中心点:东侧有一个暖炉或暖房,也是唯一的取暖处,上面就是宿舍;在食堂的南侧,上面有公共衣柜(“衣帽间”);西侧就是啤酒和烈酒的酒窖,上面还有粮仓。

In the time of Charlemagne the requirements of a separate monastic community within an extended and scattered manorial estate created this “monastery within a monastery” in the form of the locked cloister, an architectural solution allowing the monks to perform their sacred tasks apart from the distractions of laymen and servants. Horn offers as early examples Abbot Gundeland’s “Altenmünster” of Lorsch abbey (765-74), as revealed in the excavations by Frederich Behn; Lorsch was adapted without substantial alteration from a Frankish nobleman’s villa rustica, in a tradition unbroken from late Roman times. Another early cloister, that of the abbey of Saint-Riquier (790-99), took a triangular shape, with chapels at the corners, in conscious representation of the Trinity. A square cloister sited against the flank of the abbey church were built at Inden (816) and the abbey of St. Wandrille at Fontenelle (823-33). At Fulda, a new cloister (819) was sited to the liturgical west of the church “in the Roman manner” familiar from the forecourt of Old St. Peter’s Basilica because it would be closer to the relics.

查理曼大帝时代要求在延伸或散落的庄园田地里要有隔离开来的修道院社群,就创造出了所谓的“修道院里的修道院”,是个上锁的迴廊,这个建筑设计的解决方案允许修道士能够不受一般百姓和仆人的干扰去做神圣的工作。霍恩提供了(Losch) 洛池隐修院(765-74) 里神父(Gundeland)甘得兰畫的“Altenmunster”区这个早期的例子,是由(Frederich Behn)斐得利赐倍恩挖掘出来发现的 ;(Lorsch) 洛池隐修院是从法兰克王国贵族的古别墅那里引用过来,并没有作什么实质的修改,延续了晚期罗马帝国时代的传统。另一个早期的迴廊是(Saint Riquier)圣利基尔(790-99)的隐修院,是三角形的,角头有小礼拜堂,有意借此表示三位一体的精神。在德国(Inden)应登隐修院教堂(819)以及法国(Fontenelle)枫得娜丽(823-33)的(Saint Wandrille)圣万德利隐修院的侧翼就建了四方形的迴廊。在德国(Fulda)富而达市,新的迴廊就以“罗马的做法”建在传统礼拜式教堂的西侧,跟旧的(St.Peter’s Basilica)圣彼得圣殿类似,因为这样才比较靠近圣物。

The hortus conclusus or “enclosed garden” of medieval times, whether secular or claustral, featured the essential well at the center, from which four paths divided the space into quadrants.

中世纪时期的围墙后花园或“封闭式花园”无论是世俗或遁世的,中心点都会有一口不可少的井,从这个点开出四条小径划分出四个区块。

The largest cloister in the world (12,000 m2/130,000 sq ft) is at the Certosa di Padula near Salerno in southern Italy.

世界上最大的迴廊(12000平方公尺/130000方英尺)就位于意大利南部(Selerno)萨莱诺省会附近的(Certosa di Padula)八堵拉修道院。

 

See Also 参阅

Peristyle 列柱
Quadrangle (architecture) 四角形 (建筑)
Siheyuan 四合院

 

Notes

^ Walter Horn, “On the Origins of the Medieval Cloister” Gesta 12.1/2 (1973:13-52) p. 13.

^ 沃尔特·霍恩,“中世纪迴廊的起源”Gesta 12.1 / 2(1973:13-52)13页。

^ Oxford Dictionary of Architecture and Landscape Architecture, s.v. “Cloister”

^ 建筑和景观设计的牛津词典,s.v.“迴廊”

^ The Code of Canon Law, Canon 667 ff. English translation copyright 1983 The Canon Law Society Trust

^ 教会律法守则,法规667 ff。英语翻译版权1983 教会律法协会信托

^ Cf. German Kloster. Cf。德国克洛斯特。

^ Horn 1973, eo. loc. gives these sources. 霍恩1973年,eo. loc. 提供这些来源。

^ The normal Syrian monastery plan was an open one, Horn observes.

^ 霍恩的观察发现,一般的叙利亚修道院布局都是开放式的。

^ Horn 1973, plans, figs 9 and 10 霍恩1973,平面图,图9和10

^ Horn pp 40ff. 霍恩pp 40ff。

^ When Lorsch was rebuilt on a neighboring site by Abbot Richbold (784-804) the cloister was made a perfect square, against the south flank of the new church, precisely as in the plan of St. Gall (Horn 1973:44, figs 43ab, 45).

^ 当神父Richbold(784-804)在隔邻的土地重建Lorsch修道院时,迴廊是完美的四方形,位于新教堂的南面,跟(St.Gall)圣高尔教堂的平面图完全一样(霍恩 1974:44,图43ab, 45)。

^ Horn 1973:43 and fig 42ab. 霍恩1973:43和图42ab。

^ Vita Eigili, the life of Abbot Eigil. 伊吉里传,神父伊吉里的一生。

 

External Links 外部链接

Photographs of cloisters in Spain, Portugal and England

西班牙,葡萄牙和英格兰的修道院照片

The Code of Canon Law, cf canons 667 ff.

教会法规守则,cf法规667 ff。

New Advent Encyclopaedia III ff. on “Nuns, properly so called

《新临百科全书三》里的 “所谓的修女”

“Cloister” in the New Advent encyclopaedia

《新临百科全书》里的“迴廊”

New Advent Encyclopaedia on “Religious Life

《新临百科全书》里的“宗教生活”

Photos and information on cloisters in France, Italy and Spain

在法国,意大利和西班牙的迴廊照片与资讯

“Order of the Stick” comic describing the spell “Cloister”

漫画“棒子的秩序”描述的“迴廊”魔咒

 

Categories 分類

Rooms, Spaces, and Architectural Elements  房间,空间,建筑设计元素

Public Areas 公共场所

Airport lounge 机场休息室

Auditorium 礼堂

Cafeteria 餐饮店

Classroom 课室

Changing room 更衣室

Conference hall 会议厅

Doctor’s office 医生办公室

Function hall 聚会厅

Mailroom 邮件室

Library 图书馆

Lobby 大厅

Office 办公室

Refectory 食堂 /饭厅

Restroom 洗手间 /卫生间

Security 保安 / 保全

Waiting room 等候室 / 候车室

Passages and Spaces 通道与空间

Alcove 壁龛

Atrium 中庭

Balcony 阳台

Breezeway 通风廊

Corridor 走廊

Deck 甲板

Elevator 电梯

Emergency exit 紧急出口

Escalator 自动扶梯

Entryway / Genkan 入口处 / 玄关

Foyer 前庭 / 堂前

Hallway 礼堂

Loft 阁楼

Loggia 走廊

Nook 小角落

Patio 天井

Pedway 高架走道

Pergola 绿荫廊道

Porch 露台

porte-cochère 前庭门廊

Portico 廊

Ramp 斜坡道

Secret passage 秘密通道

Skyway 天桥

Spear closet 矛头角

Stairway 楼梯

Terrace 天台

Veranda 走廊

Vestibule 前庭 / 门厅

Wheelchair ramp 轮椅坡道

Utility and Storage 工用与存储

Attic 顶楼

Basement 地下室

Box Room / Carport 箱室 / 车库

Cloakroom 衣帽间

Closet 橱柜

Electrical room 电气房

Equipment room 机房

Furnace room / Boiler room 炉房 / 锅炉房

Garage 车房

Janitorial closet 卫生柜 / 清洁橱

Laundry room / Utility room 洗衣房 / 工作间

Mechanical room / floor 机械房 / 层

Pantry 茶水处 / 杂物处

Root cellar 地窖

Semi-basement 半地下室

Studio 工作室

Server room 伺服器机房

Wardrobe 衣柜

Workshop 车间 / 工作室 / 工房

Vault 保险库

Wine cellar 酒窖

Wiring closet / Demarcation point 配线房 / 划界点

Shared Residential Rooms 共用住宅房间

Billiard room 桌球室

Bonus room 备用房

Common room 公共房

Common Room (university) 公共休息室 (大学)

Conversation pit 闲聊坑

Den 小窝

Dining room 餐室 / 饭厅

Drawing room 小客厅

Family room 家人聚合室

Great room 大厅

Hearth room 壁炉房 / 灶房

Home office 住家办公室

Kitchen 厨房

Kitchenette 小厨房

Library 图书馆

Living room / Lounge / Sitting room 客厅/ 休闲室 / 客厅

Man cave 人洞 / 私房

Media room or Home theater 媒体室或家庭影院

Mehmaan khana 小客厅

Recreation room 娱乐室 /康乐室

Shrines 神坛

Study 书室

Student lounge 学生休息室

Sunroom / Solarium 日光室 / 观景室

Private Rooms 私人房间

Bathroom / Toilet (room) 浴室 / 厕所 (间)

Bedroom / Guest room 卧室 / 客房

Boudoir 闺房

Cabinet 内阁

Jack and Jill bathroom 两房共用浴室

Nursery 托儿所

Safe room 安全房

State room 大堂 / 国宾厅

Suite 套房

Walk-in closet 步入式衣橱

Great House Areas 大房子区块

Ballroom 舞厅

Butler’s pantry 管家的杂物间

Buttery 酒窖

Drawing room 小客厅

Fainting room 慵懒室

Great chamber 主厅 / 主室

Great hall 大堂

Larder 贮藏室

Long gallery 长廊

Lumber room 暗房

Parlour 会客室

Root cellar 地窖

Salon 客厅

Saucery 调味处

Scullery 碗碟间

Servants’ hall 仆人厅

Servants’ quarters 佣人宿舍

Smoking room 吸烟室

Solar 太阳能

Spicery 香料间

Still room 酵房

Undercroft 贮藏室

Other Areas 其他区块

Barn 谷仓

Boathouse 船屋

Conservatory 暖房 / 温室

Gym 健身房

Loading dock 装卸码头

Moon gate 月亮门

Outhouse 厕所 / 外屋

Secondary suite 单房 / 附属屋

Shed 棚 / 小屋

Stable 马房

Storm cellar or Storm room 风暴地窖或避风室

Architectural Elements 建筑设计元素

Arch 拱

Ceiling 天花板

Colonnade 柱廊 / 列柱

Column 柱子

Courtyard 庭院

Fireplace 壁炉

Floor 地板

Gate 前门

Lighting 照明

Medaillon 圆雕

Ornament 点缀物

Swimming pool 游泳池

Vault 保险库

Wet bar 湿吧台

Roof 屋顶

Related Terms 相关术语

Building 建筑

Furniture 家具

House 房子

House plan 房子平面图

Rooms 房间

 

—— END ——

 

Source > Wikipedia at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cloister

Translated by > BlogHost — hkTan

Word Count > Approx. 840 words in English

 

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