Home > Wine:酒 > Wine Law 葡萄酒法律

Wine Law 葡萄酒法律

Wine Law  葡 萄 酒 法 律

 

Wine laws are legislation regulating various aspects of production and sales of wine. The purpose of wine laws includes combating wine fraud, by means of regulated protected designations of origin, labelling practices and classification of wine, as well as regulating allowed additives and procedures in winemaking and viticulture. Legislation affecting all kinds of alcohol beverages, such as the legal drinking age and licensing practices related to distribution and sales, are usually not considered wine laws.

葡萄酒法律是監管生產與銷售葡萄酒各個方面的立法。葡萄酒法律的目的是打擊葡萄酒欺詐手段,通過管制受保護的原產地名銜,注明葡萄酒的標籤規則與級別,以及管制釀酒和葡萄栽培法的過程與准許的添加劑的辦法去監管。影響所有酒精飲料的立法如法定的飲酒年齡以及跟分銷與銷售有關的執照通常都不算是葡萄酒法律。

Wine is regulated by regional, state, and local laws. The laws and their relative rigidity differ for New World and Old World wines. Old World wines tend to have more stringent regulations than New World wines. Various wine laws, however, may include appellation-based regulations that cover boundaries as well as permitted grape varieties and winemaking practice-such as the French Appellation d’origine contrôlée (AOC), Italian Denominazione di origine controllata (DOC), Spanish Denominación de Origen (DO) and Portuguese Denominação de Origem Controlada (DOC). In some New World wine regions, such as the United States and Australia, the wine laws of the appellation systems (American Viticultural Area (AVA) and Australian Geographical Indication (GIs)) only pertain to boundary specifics and guaranteeing that a certain percentage of grapes come from the area listed on the wine label.

葡萄酒受到區域,州和當地法律的管制,這些法律與其相對僵硬的條例對新世界(世代)和舊世界(世代)的酒都有所不同。然而,各種葡萄酒法律可以包括以產區為本的法規,涵蓋了產區範圍,獲准的葡萄品種以及釀酒法如法國優良受管原產區的d’origine contrôlée(AOC),意大利最優質受管原產區的Denominazione di origine controllata(DOC),西班牙原產區的Denominación de Origen(DO)和葡萄牙受管原產區的Denominação de Origem Controlada(DOC)。在一些新世代葡萄酒的區域如美國和澳洲的產區系統(美國葡萄栽培園區(AVA)和澳洲地理迹象(GIs))的葡萄酒法律只涵蓋範圍的細則以及保證某個百分比的葡萄酒是產自酒標上列明的產區。

Some wine laws are established by local governments and are specific to that wine region, such as the 1954 municipal decree in the village of Châteauneuf-du-Pape that banned the overhead flying, landing or taking off of aviation in the commune which could negatively affect the region’s vineyards and wine production.

有些葡萄酒法律是當地政府制定的,而且只針對該葡萄酒生產區域而定,譬如Châteauneuf-du-Pape村在1954年頒佈的市政法令就禁止在該社區的航空活動,不得飛過,降落和起飛,因為會影響這個區域的葡萄園和產品的品質。

 

Contents  目錄

1. History  歷史

2. Comparative wine laws  可比較的葡萄酒法律

2.1 European Union  歐盟

2.2 United States  美國

3. See also  參閱

 

History  歷史

The oldest known wine laws were created by the Roman emperor Domitian, who c. 92 issued an edict that banned the plantings of any new vineyards in Italy and ordered the uprooting of half of the vineyards in Roman provinces. The purpose of the edict was to improve the food supply of Roman cities by increasing the production of cereals. There is evidence to suggest that Domitian’s edict was largely ignored in the Roman provinces. Domitian’s edict, while probably not followed to any greater extent, stayed in effect for 188 years until Emperor Probus repealed the measure in 280.

已知最古老的葡萄酒法律是由羅馬皇帝圖米斯燕(Domitian)開創的,他在公元92年下詔公告,禁止在意大利開墾任何新葡萄園,還下令銷毀羅馬省裡半數的葡萄園。這個諭旨的目的是要改善羅馬各城市的食物供應,增加穀物的產量。有證據顯示圖米斯燕的諭旨在大部份羅馬省份裡被當成耳邊風。雖然他的諭旨可能沒多少人要遵守,但還是維持有效188年,直到普羅卜司(Probus)在280年废除這項措施。

In the Holy Roman Empire, the oldest wine law was created by the Reichstag 1498 to combat wine fraud.

神聖羅馬帝國最早的葡萄酒法律是雷伊徹斯特(Reigchstag)在1498年訂立來對付葡萄酒欺詐行為。

In the wake of the Great French Wine Blight, which led to much wine fraud to supplement diminishing supply, wine laws were created in France to combat fraud. The French wine legislation later evolved to the AOC system, and inspired common European Union regulations.

在“法國葡萄酒大枯萎”期間,爲了填補日益減少的供應量,就出現很多造假的欺詐案,因此才在法國訂立葡萄酒法律來打擊欺詐行為。後來,法國的葡萄酒法規演變成公認優良產區(AOC)系統,也催生出共通的歐盟法規。

 

Comparative Wine Laws  可比較的葡萄酒法律

European Union  歐盟

In the European Union (EU), much of the wine law is common to all countries through the European Union wine regulations which is a part of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP). The CAP Wine Regime consists of a set of rules that govern the wine sector, with the aim of achieving a balanced and open market. The principal features are rules governing production, oenological practices and processes, classification of wines, a range of structural and support measures, detailed rules governing the description and labeling of wines, and imports from non-EU countries.

歐盟(EU)的大部份葡萄酒法律對所有國家都通用,歐盟的葡萄酒法規就是”共同農業政策”(CAP)中的一部份。”CAP葡萄酒制度”有一套規則來管制葡萄酒行業,目標是要建立起一個平衡與開放的市場,主要特點有管制生產的規則,釀酒做法與程序,葡萄酒級別,一連串結構性與支援措施,管制描述葡萄酒與酒標的規則細節,以及來自非歐盟國家的進口。

In addition to regulations that apply to all EU members, each EU country has its own framework of laws which govern aspects of winemaking such as the percentage of a grape to be included in a wine labeled with that variety name. For instance, in France wine professionals acribe to the Appellation d’Origine Contrôlée (AOC) system, which guarantees the origin of wine and other food products, such as cheese.

除了適用於所有歐盟成員國的法規以外,每個歐盟國都有自己的一套法律架構來管制制酒的各個方面,譬如酒標上注明的葡萄酒品種名稱需要有多少百分比的葡萄在內。舉例說,遵守“受管優質原產區”(AOC) 系統的法國葡萄酒專業業者就保證葡萄酒的原產正宗,也保證其他食物如奶酪的原產品質。

 

United States  美國

In the United States, the wine laws are more flexible than European standards in regards to regulations on what viticultural and winemaking practice are allowed in each wine region. The Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (BATF) defines and approves applications for regions to become American Viticultural Areas. This system was established in 1978 with the Augusta AVA in Missouri designated as the first recognized AVA on June 20, 1980. A sizable portion of American wine laws relate to wine labelling practices and include the stipulations that if an AVA name appears on the label that at least 85% of grapes used to produce the wine must come from that AVA. In addition to AVAs, every American state and county can produce wine and label it under their state/county wide appellation provided at least 75% of the grapes come from that area. The state of California and Texas have wine laws increasing the requirement to 100% and 85%, respectively, for use of a state-wide appellation on the wine label.

美國的葡萄酒法律就比歐洲的標準靈活得多,特別是每一個葡萄酒產區可准許哪一種釀酒與制酒做法的規定。美國煙酒槍械與爆炸物管理局(BATF)為“美國葡萄栽培園區”(AVA)定義,也批准這些地區的申請,這套系統在1978年建立,密蘇裡州(Missouri)的奧古斯塔(Augusta)AVA在1980年6月20日被指定為第一個公認的“美國葡萄栽培園區”。美國的葡萄酒法律有很多篇章都跟葡萄酒標籤有關,還明文規定說,如果AVA的名字在酒標上出現,那麼釀製出這瓶葡萄酒的葡萄要有至少85%是來自那個葡萄園區。除了AVA以外,每一個美國的州和郡(省和縣)可以給自家生產的葡萄酒貼上那個州/郡的原產地酒標,只要有至少75%的葡萄是產自那個產區就行。加利福尼亞州(California)和德克薩斯州(Texas)的葡萄酒法律甚至把要求提高到100%和85%,作為整個州的原產地酒標。

The appearance of grape variety (or varietal) and vintage year is also regulated by US wine labeling laws with requirements of at least 75% for the grape variety and 95% being harvested in that vintage year for either to appear on the wine label. The state of Oregon has increased the restriction for grape variety to 90%, with exception of Cabernet Sauvignon which under Oregon wine laws can have a minimum 75%. Additionally, all US wine must include the Surgeon General warning about dangers associated with alcohol consumption and a warning about the possible use of sulfites. Several wineries and importers have had conflicts with the BATF over these labeling requirements, one notable example being the importer Kermit Lynch. The criticism is typically centered on the absence of inclusion about the potential positive aspects of moderate wine consumption (such as the so-called “French paradox”) and that many wineries are forced to label their wines as “containing sulfites” when the decision to use sulfites are normally not made until long after wine labels have been ordered and the finished wine may contain no sulfites at all.

葡萄品種和收成年份的顯示也受到美國葡萄酒標籤法律的管制,要求至少有75%該品種的葡萄成份以及至少95%在那一年收成才能出現在酒標上。俄勒岡州(Oregon)把葡萄品種的要求提高到90%,除了赤霞珠(Cabernet Sauvignon)這個品種例外,俄勒岡州的葡萄酒法律允許這種酒只需至少75%就行。此外,所有美國葡萄酒標籤上必須加“外科總監”(公共健康總發言人)對喝酒精的警告字句,以及警告可能有用到的亞硫酸鹽。一些酒廠和進口商在標籤要求上跟BATF針鋒相對,比較突出的例子是Kermit Lynch進口商。批評通常都圍繞在沒考慮到適度喝酒的潛在好處上(比如所謂的“法國人悖論”),而且很多酒廠都被迫在他們的酒標上聲明“內含亞硫酸鹽”,因為成酒可能完全不含任何亞硫酸鹽,而且一般上都是在酒標已經預訂多時之後才來決定要加這個字眼。

 

See also  參閱

  • Alcohol law  酒精法

 

—— END ——

 

Source >Wikipedia at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wine_law

Translated by > BlogHost – hkTan

Word Count > approx.977 words in English

 

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