Osteology is the scientific study of bones, practiced by osteologists. A subdiscipline of anatomy, anthropology, and archeology, osteology is a detailed study of the structure of bones, skeletal elements, teeth, morphology, function, disease, pathology, the process of ossification (from cartilaginous molds), the resistance and hardness of bones (biophysics), etc. often used by scientists with identification of human remains with regard to age, death, sex, growth, and development in a biocultural context.
Osteology and osteologists should not be confused with the alternative medical practice known as osteopathy and its practitioners, osteopaths.
A typical analysis will include:
- an inventory of the skeletal elements present
- a dental inventory
- aging data, based upon epiphyseal fusion and dental eruption (for subadults) and deterioration of the pubic symphysis or sternal end of ribs (for adults)
- stature and other metric data
- non-metric traits
- pathology and/or cultural modifications
Osteological approaches are frequently applied to investigations in disciplines such as forensic science, physical anthropology and archaeology, and has a place in research on topics including:
- Health 健康
- Demography 人口
- Diet 饮食
- Disease 疾病
- activity patterns 活动模式
- physique 体质
- genetics of early populations 早期人口的遗传
- population migration 人口迁徙
- Ancient warfare 古代战争
- social inequality 社会不平等
- identification of unknown remains 鉴定不明的遗骸
- criminal investigations 刑事侦查
- war crimes 战争罪
See also 另见
- Osteometric points 骨量点
External Links 外部链接
- British Association for Biological Anthropology and Osteoarchaeology
- Osteology 骨骼学
- Physical anthropology 体质人类学
- Musculoskeletal system 肌肉骨骼
- Anthropology 人类学
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Source > Wikipedia at en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Osteology
Translated by > BlogHost
Word Count > approx.300 words in English
Baleen or whalebone is a filter-feeder system inside the mouths of baleen whales. The baleen system works when a whale opens its mouth underwater and then water pours into the whale’s mouth. The whale then pushes the water out, and animals such as krill are filtered by the baleen and remain as food source for the whale. Baleen is similar to bristles and is made of keratin, the same substance found in human fingernails and hair. Some whales, such as the bowhead whale, have longer baleen than others. Others whales, such as the gray whale, only use one side of their baleen. These baleen bristles are arranged in plates across the upper jaw of the whale.
Depending on the species, a baleen plate can be 0.5 to 3.5 metres (1.6 to 11 ft) long, and weigh up to 90 kilograms (200 lb). Its hairy fringes are called baleen hair or whalebone-hair. They are also called baleen bristles, which in sei whales are highly calcified, calcification functioning to increase their stiffness. Baleen plates are broader at the gumline (base). The plates have been compared to sieves or Venetian blinds.
- Etymology 词源
- Evolution 进化
- Filter feeding 滤食性能
- Human uses 人类用途
- As a habitat 栖息地
- References 参考资料
- Further reading 其他读物
The word “baleen” derives from Early Modern English word meaning “whale”. This in turn derives from the Latin balaena, related to the Greek phalaina – both of these also mean “whale”.
“鲸须”一词源自于早期的现代英语单词，意思是“ 鲸鱼 ”,也是出自拉丁文的balaena，跟希腊文的phalaina有关，两者的意思都是”鲸鱼”.
The oldest true fossils of baleen are only 15 million years old, but baleen rarely fossilizes, and scientists believe it originated considerably earlier than that. This is indicated by baleen-related skull modifications being found in fossils from considerably earlier, including a buttress of bone in the upper jaw beneath the eyes, and loose lower jaw bones at the chin. Baleen is believed to have evolved around thirty million years ago, possibly from a hard, gummy upper jaw, like the one a Dall’s porpoise has. In fact, it resembles baleen closely at the microscopic level.
Many early baleen whales also had teeth, but these were probably used only peripherally, or perhaps not at all (again like Dall’s porpoise, which catches squid and fish by gripping them against its hard upper jaw).
Filter Feeding 滤食性能
A whale’s baleen plates play the most important role in its filter-feeding process. In order to feed, a baleen whale opens its mouth widely and scoops in dense shoals of prey (such as krill, copepods, small fish and sometimes birds that happen to be near the shoals), together with large volumes of water. It then partly shuts its mouth and presses its tongue against its upper jaw, forcing the water to pass out sideways through the baleen, thus sieving out the prey which it then swallows.
Human Uses 人类用途
People formerly used baleen for making numerous items where flexibility and strength were required, including collar stiffeners, buggy whips and parasol ribs, and as corset stays. It was commonly used to crease paper; its flexibility kept it from damaging the paper. It was also occasionally used in cable-backed bows. Synthetic materials are now usually used for similar purposes, especially plastic and fibre glass. Baleen was frequently used in the 18th and early 19th centuries as the handle for silver punch or toddy ladles. It was chosen for this use because of its insulating qualities. Baleen plates are also used by indigenous people to create fine crafts.
As a Habitat 栖息地
Baleen serves as a habitat for some species from the gastropod families Pyropeltidae, Cocculinidae, Osteopeltidae and Neolepetopsidae.
See Also 另见
- John Henry Devereux South Carolina architect who used whale jaw bones to adorn the largest mansion on Sullivan’s Island.
南卡罗来纳州的建筑师John Henry Devereux约翰亨利德弗罗用鲸鱼颚骨来装饰Sullivan苏里曼岛上最大的豪宅。
- Cetaceans 鲸类动物
- Whale Products 鲸鱼产品
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Source > Wikipedia at en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Baleen
Translated by > BlogHost
Word Count > approx. 630 words in English