Traditional Chinese | 繁體中文
The Urban Clan of Genghis Khan
An influx of nomads has turned the Mongolian capital upside down.
Not long ago a young Mongolian livestock herder named Ochkhuu Genen loaded what was left of his life into a borrowed Chinese pickup truck and moved it to Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia’s sprawling capital. Slender and dignified, Ochkhuu gave no outward sign of turmoil as he buried himself in the mechanics of packing, lifting, unpacking, and assembling. He may have been disappointed in himself, even shaken, but outwardly he was as smooth and focused as a socket wrench.
Within hours of arriving, Ochkhuu had pitched his ger—the nomad’s traditional round dwelling—on a small, fenced plot of bare ground he’d rented on the outskirts of the city. Around it were thousands of other plots, each with a ger in the middle, jammed together on the slopes overlooking Ulaanbaatar. Once his stovepipe was raised and the stakes driven in, he opened the low wooden door for his wife, Norvoo; their baby boy, Ulaka; and their six-year-old daughter, Anuka.
Norvoo also took comfort in the task at hand. She put aside her worries long enough to make sure their ger was as cozy as it had been in the countryside: linoleum floor, cast-iron stove, and cots around the edges, with family pictures neatly pinned to the wall and a small television on a wooden table.
Outside their door, however, the view was starkly different from what it had been on the steppe an hour southwest of the capital, where they’d raised their livestock next to the ger of Norvoo’s parents. Here, in place of rolling grasslands, there was a seven-foot-high wooden fence a few feet away. And in place of Ochkhuu’s cherished livestock—the horses and cattle and sheep—there was only the landlord’s dog, a black and brown mongrel staked in the yard, who barked himself hoarse at the least provocation.
There was plenty of provocation just beyond the fence, in the ramshackle slums, or ger districts, where about 60 percent of Ulaanbaatar’s 1.2 million people live without paved roads, sanitation, or running water. As in other urban slums, the ger districts are high in crime, alcoholism, poverty, and despair, which is why many people here do the unthinkable, for a herder: They lock their gates at night.
“We step outside the ger and all we can see is that fence,” Ochkhuu said. “It’s like living in a box.”
Nomads were never meant to live in a box, but Ochkhuu and Norvoo weren’t there by choice. During the winter of 2009-2010, most of the couple’s livestock either froze or starved to death during a white dzud, a devastating period of snow, ice, and bitter cold that follows a summer drought; it lasted more than four months. By the time the weather broke, the couple’s herd of 350 animals had been cut to 90. Across Mongolia some eight million animals—cows, yaks, camels, horses, goats, and sheep—died that winter.
“After that, I just couldn’t see our future in the countryside any more,” Ochkhuu said quietly. “So we decided to sell what was left of our herd and make a new life.”
It was also a clear-eyed calculation to improve the lives of their children. Ochkhuu and Norvoo feel no great affinity for city life, but they see its advantages. In the countryside they were far removed from nurses and schools, but here they can get free medical care for their infant son, and Anuka can attend a public school.
There are more than half a million Ochkhuus and Norvoos living these days in UB, as Mongolians call Ulaanbaatar. Many have been driven from the steppe by bad winters, bad luck, and bad prospects. And now that Mongolia’s coal, gold, and copper mines are attracting billions in foreign investment, they also have flooded into UB in search of job prospects created by the economic upsurge from mining money.
Beyond the downtown high-rises, UB often feels like a frontier town run amok, strewn lengthwise along a river valley like gravel left behind by a flash flood. Founded in 1639 as a movable Buddhist monastic center and trading post, the settlement took root in its present location in 1778. The town was laid out along one major thoroughfare, which runs along the base of a low mountain. Today that road goes by the name Peace Avenue, and it’s still the only direct way to get from one side of town to the other. From daybreak to nightfall, it’s jammed with traffic. Driving it is like getting on a conveyor belt that inches past crumbling Soviet-era apartment blocks, side streets that run promisingly for 50 yards and then end at a barricade, unexplained piles of rusted iron and concrete, and office buildings so clumsily situated and hidden from view that no taxi driver can find them.
Add to this a flood of nomads, many of them recent arrivals whose skill set doesn’t include city driving, crossing a busy road, or the subtleties of social interaction in an urban environment, and you’ve got a heady mix. It’s not unusual to be waiting in line at a kiosk and have some gnarled tree trunk of a man in herder clothes—steppe boots, felt hat, and the traditional wraparound del—stomp to the front of the line, shouldering customers out of the way like a hockey player, just to see what the place is selling. If there are other herders in line, he gets pushed back just as hard. There are no fights, no hard feelings. That’s just the way it goes.
“These people are completely free,” says Baabar, a prominent publisher and historian who writes often about Mongolia’s national character. “Even if they’ve been in UB for years, their mentality is still nomadic. They do exactly what they want to do, when they want to do it. Watch people crossing the road. They just lurch out into traffic without batting an eye. It doesn’t occur to them to compromise, even with a speeding automobile. We’re a nation of rugged individuals, with no regard for rules.”
Early one Saturday morning Ochkhuu, Norvoo, and their kids returned to the country for a weekend at Norvoo’s parents’ home to prepare their farm for winter. Ochkhuu helped Norvoo’s father, Jaya, cut hay for eight hours, and by Sunday night they had moved enough hay to the barn to keep his animals alive through the winter, even a dzud. Jaya too had lost huge numbers of animals during the last dzud—his herd had dropped from more than a thousand to 300 animals—but he was determined to make a comeback, banking on decades of experience as a herder both during and after communism, which he rather misses.
“There were bad things, of course. I hated being told what to do by bureaucrats. But communism protected us from disasters like last winter,” he said. “Even if you lost all your animals, you wouldn’t starve to death.”
Although they supported Ochkhuu and Norvoo’s decision to move, Jaya and his wife, Chantsal, often said how lonely they were without them next door. But moving to UB was out of the question. “I wouldn’t last a week in that city,” Jaya scowled. “Too much noise, too much jangling and banging. I’d get sick and die.”
Men like Jaya and Ochkhuu are authentic livestock herders, unlike others who failed during the dzud, said historian Baabar. After the collapse of communism, when many Soviet-era factories closed down, thousands of people left UB to reclaim their pastoral roots. But “they’d forgotten everything they knew about being nomads, how to raise livestock, how to survive these tough winters,” he said. The pity, says Baabar, is that they are also not fit to compete in the city.
All this comes at a time when Mongolia, communist until 1990, is seeking to reassert itself between the two powers next door, Russia and China, that have pushed it around for centuries. Nationalism—even xenophobia—is on the rise, and foreigners are increasingly blamed for Mongolia’s problems in the same breath as local and national politicians, who are widely considered, with justification, as deeply corrupt.
Visiting Chinese businessmen, accused of enriching themselves at Mongolia’s expense, no longer venture out after dark on the streets of the capital for fear of being attacked by young guys in black leather channeling Genghis Khan, who is back in vogue as a symbol of Mongolian pride. Banned during Soviet times, images of Genghis are everywhere you look today, from vodka labels and playing cards to the colossal, 131-foot steel statue of the conqueror on horseback that rises from the steppe an hour east of UB to cast the mother of all dirty looks toward China.
He’s not the only one looking in that direction. By many estimates, Mongolia is sitting on a trillion dollars’ worth of recoverable coal, copper, and gold, much of it concentrated near the Chinese border around Oyu Tolgoi, or Turquoise Hill. There Ivanhoe Mines, the Canadian mining giant, is tapping the world’s largest undeveloped copper and gold deposit in partnership with Rio Tinto, an Anglo-Australian company, and the Mongolian government, which holds a 34 percent share of the project, potentially adding billions of dollars to the national economy.
他也不是唯一望向中國方向的人，多項探測估計蒙古國正坐擁價值數兆元可開採的煤，銅和黃金，大部份集中在(Oyu Tolgoi)奧友多軌或(Turquoise Hill)綠松石山這個靠近中國邊界的地方。加拿大的礦產大霸Ivanhoe Mines正在那裡跟英國澳洲的Rio Tinto公司聯手開採世界最大還未開發的銅與黃金寶地，蒙古政府佔了這個項目34%的股份，給全國經濟注入了幾十億元的產值。
How much of that will migrate 340 miles north and into the pockets of ordinary people such as Ochkhuu is an open question. Experts at the World Bank and the United Nations are urging Mongolia to invest that money in infrastructure, training, and growing the economy, although the current government, led by Prime Minister Sukhbaatar Batbold, took a more direct approach, pledging to grant every man, woman, and child a payment of about $1,200 from the mining windfall.
Ochkhuu doesn’t believe he’ll ever see that money. But in the meantime, he needs to work. At first he tried his hand as an entrepreneur, having identified what he thought was a need in the community. He and a partner rented a room at a local hotel and then marketed it to ger dwellers, who lack running water, as a place to take a shower or a bath. He went door-to-door looking for customers. There were very few takers. Ochkhuu lost more than $200 on the deal, a sizable chunk of his savings.
Now he’s thinking of buying a used car and turning it into a taxi. He’d need to borrow the money, but he’d make a pretty good living, and the freedom of driving and being his own boss appeals to him. More important, he’d be able to drive his daughter to and from school.
“We may not be able to raise our animals in UB,” he went on. “But it’s a good place to raise our children.”
Passing through the fence into his yard, Ochkhuu drags the wooden gate behind him until the latch clicks.
“God, I miss my horses,” he says.
By Don Belt
Photograph by Mark Leong
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Translated by > BlogHost :- hkTan
Word Count > approx.1820 words in English
Shaftesbury is a town in Dorset, England, situated on the A30 road near the Wiltshire border 20 miles west of Salisbury. The town is built 718 feet (219 metres) above sea level on the side of a chalk and greensand hill, which is part of Cranborne Chase, the only significant hilltop settlement in Dorset. It is one of the oldest and highest towns in Britain.
Shaftesbury-沙夫特士伯里乡镇位于英国的(Dorset)多社郡一条靠近(Wiltshire)威特郡边界，Salisbury-沙粒式伯里镇以西20英里的A30公路上。这个乡镇建在Cranborne Chase 的绿砂丘旁边，海拔718英尺(219米)，也是唯一在(Dorset)多社郡里显眼的山丘聚落。它是英国最古老的和海拔最高的的乡镇之一。
In 2001, the town had a population of 6,665 with 3,112 dwellings, only a small increase from 1991. There are currently 2 primary schools and an enlarged secondary school. Major employers include Pork Farms, Stalbridge Linen (a commercial laundry), Guys Marsh Prison, Wessex Electrical and the Royal Mail.
在2001年，全镇人口有6665人，3112户，从1991年起只有的小幅度增长。目前有两所小学和一所扩建的中学。主要的雇主包括Pork Farms-猪肉农场 ，Stalbridge布料（商业洗衣房），Guys Marsh 监狱，Wessex 电器和Royal Mail-皇家邮件。
In Bimport stands the Westminster Memorial Hospital, a small community hospital which has about 20 beds, an accident and emergency department (not 24 hrs) and a range of out-patient clinics. It was constructed in the mid-19th century with a legacy from the then Duke of Westminster.
Many of the older buildings in the town are of the local greensand, while others built from the grey Chilmark limestone, much of which was salvaged from the demolished Shaftesbury Abbey, and have thatched roofs. Tourism is one of the main industries in the town.
The town looks over the Blackmore Vale, part of the River Stour basin. From different viewpoints, it is possible to see at least as far as Glastonbury Tor to the northwest.
The town is famous for Gold Hill, a steep cobbled street featured on the cover of countless books about Dorset and rural England. It was perhaps most famously used as the street in the popular Ridley Scott-directed Hovis bread advertisement used through the 1970s and 1980s. The hill most recently featured in a Morrisons supermarket advert, also for bread. The town is also famous for its ruined abbey and nearby Wardour Castle.
这个镇有座著名的Gold Hill-金山，无数形容Dorset-多社郡和英国乡村的书籍都特别强调那里陡峭的鹅卵石街道。或许最有名的要算是七十到八十年代由Ridley Scott执导的Hovis面包广告片里常见的场景。最近这座山又出现在Morrisons-莫里森超市的广告片中，也是在卖面包。这个镇也因为修道院遗址和附近的Wardour城堡而闻名。
A market is held in the town on Thursdays. The Blackmore Vale is Thomas Hardy’s Vale of the Little Dairies. The town features in Thomas Hardy’s Wessex with the names Shaston and Palladour, of particular significance in Jude the Obscure.
镇上每逢星期四就举办大卖会。Blackmore Vale谷就是Thomas Hardy的著作“小奶场的淡水河谷”的地点。在Thosmas Hardy描绘的Wessex这个地方，这个镇名叫做Shaston和Palladour，特别是在Jude The Obscure-“暧昧的Jude”这一章里别具意义。
Actor Robert Newton, best known for his portrayals of Long John Silver and Bill Sikes in the 1948 David Lean film Oliver Twist, was born in Shaftesbury.
演员Robert Newton在1948年David Lean拍的影片Oliver Twist-“雾都孤儿”里演绎Long John Silver和Bill Sikes的角色都家喻户晓，他就是在Shaftesbury-沙夫特士伯里乡镇出生的当地人。
- History 历史
- See also 另见
Although Shaftesbury’s recorded history dates from Anglo-Saxon times, it may have been the Celtic Caer Palladur. Its first written record as a town is in the Burghal Hidage. Alfred the Great founded a burgh (fortified settlement) here in 880 as a defence in the struggle with the Danish invaders. Alfred and his daughter Ethelgiva founded Shaftesbury Abbey in 888, which was a spur to the growing importance of the town. Athelstan founded three royal mints, which struck pennies bearing the town’s name, and the abbey became the wealthiest Benedictine nunnery in England. On February 20, 981 the relics of St Edward the Martyr were translated from Wareham and received at the abbey with great ceremony, thereafter turning Shaftesbury into a major site of pilgrimage for miracles of healing. In 1240 Cardinal Otto (Oddone di Monferrato), legate to the Apostolic See of Pope Gregory IX visited the abbey and confirmed a charter of 1191, the first entered in the Glastonbury chartulary.
虽然Shaftesbury-沙夫特士伯里镇的历史记载可以追溯到盎格鲁撒克逊时期，它也可能曾经是古代的Celtic Caer Palladur。首度有这个镇的记载是出现在Burghal Hidage这本书里。Alfred-阿尔弗雷德大帝在公元880年建立了一个城堡抵御来自丹麦侵略者的侵犯。阿尔弗雷德和他的女儿Ethelgivazai在公元888年建立Shaftesbury-沙夫特士伯里修道院，促使这个镇成为日益重要的地方。Athelstan国王在这里成立过三家皇家铸币厂，在铜币上印上这个镇的名字，这个修道院也成了全英国最富有的Benedictine教派的修女院。1981年2月20日，公元981年的圣人Edward-爱德华义士的的遗物从从Wareham市移过来，在修道院举办盛大的接收仪式，随后就把Shaftesbury-沙夫特士伯里镇转变成信徒们寻求治疗奇迹的主要朝圣地之一。在1240年，主教Otto-奥托(Oddone di Monferrato)，特派使徒罗马教皇格雷戈里九世参观修道院，并确认了1191宪章，首次纳入在Glastonbury-格拉斯顿伯的特许权登记册里。
King Canute died here in 1035. In the Domesday Book, the town was known as Scaepterbyrg; its ownership was equally shared between king and abbey. In the Middle Ages the abbey was the central focus of the town.
In 1260, a charter to hold a market was granted. In 1392, Richard II confirmed a grant of two markets on different days. By 1340, the mayor had become a recognised figure, sworn in by the steward of the abbess.
In 1539, the last Abbess of Shaftesbury, Elizabeth Zouche, signed a deed of surrender, the (by then extremely wealthy) abbey was demolished, and its lands sold, leading to a temporary decline in the town. Sir Thomas Arundel of Wardour purchased the abbey and much of the town in 1540, but when he was later exiled for treason his lands were forfeit, and the lands passed to Pembroke then Anthony Ashley Cooper, 7th Earl of Shaftesbury, and finally to the Grosvenors.
公元1539年，最后一位沙夫特士伯里修道院院长Elizabeth Zouche-伊丽莎白周切，签署了放弃宣言，把（当时非常富裕的）修道院拆毁，出售土地，导致这个镇声誉日下。Wardour城堡的Thomas Arundel爵士在公元1540年买下了修道院和镇上的大部份土地，但他后来因叛国罪被流放，土地都被没收，转交给Pembroke镇当时Shaftesbury的第七位伯爵Anthony Ashley Cooper，最后才到了Grosvenors伯爵的手中。
Shaftesbury was a parliamentary constituency returning two members from 1296 to the Reform Act of 1832, when it was reduced to one, and in 1884 the separate constituency was abolished.
The town was broadly Parliamentarian in the Civil War, but was in Royalist hands. Wardour Castle fell to Parliamentary forces in 1643; Parliamentary forces surrounded the town in August 1645, when it was a centre of local clubmen activity. The clubmen were arrested and sent to trial in Sherborne. Shaftesbury took no part in the Monmouth Rebellion of 1685.
The town hall was built in 1827 by Earl Grosvenor after the guildhall was pulled down to widen High Street. It has been designated by English Heritage as a grade II listed building. The town hall is next to the 15th century St. Peter’s Church.
The major employers in the 18th and 19th centuries were buttonmaking and weaving. The former became a victim of mechanisation, and this caused unemployment and emigration.
The five turnpikes which met at Shaftesbury ensured that the town had a good coaching trade. The railways, however, bypassed Shaftesbury, and this influenced the subsequent pattern of its growth.
In 1919, Lord Stalbridge sold a large portion of the town, which was purchased by a syndicate and auctioned piece by piece over three days.
Most of the Saxon and Medieval buildings have now been ruined, with most of the town dating from the 18th century to present. Thomas Hardy, whose Wessex name for Shaftesbury was Shaston (or Palladour), wrote:
大部份在撒克逊和中世纪时代的建筑都已经毁了，大部分市镇古迹可以从18世纪追溯至今。Thomas Hardy在Shaftesbury镇的Wessex当地名字是Shaston(或Palladour)，他在书中写道 ：
“Vague imaginings of its castle, its three mints, its magnificent apsidal abbey, the chief glory of south Wessex, its twelve churches, its shrines, chantries, hospitals, its gabled freestone mansions—all now ruthlessly swept away—throw the visitor, even against his will, into a pensive melancholy, which the stimulating atmosphere and limitless landscape around him can scarcely dispel.”
See Also 另见
- St. Mary’s School, Shaftesbury 圣玛丽学院，沙夫特士伯里
- Shaftesbury Abbey 沙夫特士伯里修道院
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Source > Wikipedia at en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shaftesbury
Translated by > BlogHost
Word Count > approx. 1000 words in English