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Petrology

March 1, 2012 Leave a comment

Petrology  岩石学

 

Petrology (from Greek: πέτρα, petra, rock; and λόγος, logos, knowledge) is the branch of geology that studies rocks, and the conditions in which rocks form.

岩石学 (希腊文:πέτρα, petra ,岩石和λόγος,标志,知识)是地质学的一个分支,专门研究岩石以及岩石形成的条件。

Lithology was once approximately synonymous with petrography, but in current usage, lithology focuses on macroscopic hand-sample or outcrop-scale description of rocks, while petrography is the speciality that deals with microscopic details.

岩性一度是接近岩石学的代名词,但目前的用法是,岩性侧重于宏观手触觉样品或岩石外部的描述,而岩石学则专门研究微观细节。

In the oil industry, lithology, or more specifically mud logging, is the graphic representation of geological formations being drilled through, and drawn on a log called a mud log. As the cuttings are circulated out of the borehole they are sampled, examined (typically under a 10x microscope) and tested chemically when needed.

在石油工业中,岩性或更专门的泥浆测表,是钻进泥层里把数据记录在一个叫泥浆测表的记事簿中,绘成了地质图表。泥土的切片由钻孔取样,在需要时(在10倍显微镜下)检查和作化学测试。

 

Contents  目录

  • Methodology  研究方法
  • Branches  分支
  • See also  另见
  • References  参考文献
  • External links  外部链接

 

Methodology  研究方法

Petrology utilizes the classical fields of mineralogy, petrography, optical mineralogy, and chemical analyses to describe the composition and texture of rocks. Modern petrologists also include the principles of geochemistry and geophysics through the studies of geochemical trends and cycles and the use of thermodynamic data and experiments to better understand the origins of rocks.

岩石学采用古典研究领域的矿物学,岩石学,光性矿物学和化学分析来描述岩石的成份和质地。现代岩石学家还通过地球化学和物理学的原理去研究地球化学的周期趋势,也使用热力学的数据和实验更了解岩石的起源。

 

Branches  分支

There are three branches of petrology, corresponding to the three types of rocks: igneous, metamorphic, and sedimentary, and another dealing with experimental techniques:

岩石学有三个分支,对应了三种类型的岩石:火成岩,变质岩和沉积岩,另一个则跟实验技术有关:

Igneous petrology focuses on the composition and texture of igneous rocks (rocks such as granite or basalt which have crystallized from molten rock or magma). Igneous rocks include volcanic and plutonic rocks.

火成岩岩石学侧重于研究火成岩的成份和纹理(例如从熔岩或岩浆结晶而成的花岗岩或玄武岩) 。火成岩包括火山岩和深成岩。

Sedimentary petrology focuses on the composition and texture of sedimentary rocks (rocks such as sandstone, shale, or limestone which consist of pieces or particles derived from other rocks or biological or chemical deposits, and are usually bound together in a matrix of finer material).

沉积岩石学侧重于沉积岩的的成份和纹理(例如砂岩,页岩或石灰岩,里面的粒子和碎片来自其他岩石或生物或化学残留物,通常都以更细致的材料编制在一起)。

Metamorphic petrology focuses on the composition and texture of metamorphic rocks (rocks such as slate, marble, gneiss, or schist which started out as sedimentary or igneous rocks but which have undergone chemical, mineralogical or textural changes due to extremes of pressure, temperature or both).

变质岩石学侧重于变质岩的成份和质地(例如板岩,大理石,片麻岩或片岩,开始时只是沉积岩或火成岩,由于极端的压力,温度或岩石两者兼施而经历了化学,矿物学或纹理的变化)

Experimental petrology employs high-pressure, high-temperature apparatus to investigate the geochemistry and phase relations of natural or synthetic materials at elevated pressures and temperatures. Experiments are particularly useful for investigating rocks of the lower crust and upper mantle that rarely survive the journey to the surface in pristine condition. The work of experimental petrologists has laid a foundation on which modern understanding of igneous and metamorphic processes has been built.

验性岩石学采用高压,高温设备去研究在较高压力和温度下的天然或人工合成的材料和地质化学与阶段变化的关系。实验特别是用来研究下地壳和上地幔的岩石,因为它们很少在原始状态之下浮上地面。实验岩石学的工作奠定了火成岩和变质过程的基础提供现代的新理解。

 

See Also  另见

  • Important publications in petrology  岩石学的重要出版物
  • Ore  金矿

 

External Link  外部链接

  • Atlas of Igneous and metamorphic rocks, minerals, and textures – Geology Department, University of North Carolina

 火成岩和变质岩,矿物和纹理地图集 – 北卡罗莱纳大学地质学系

  • Metamorphic Petrology Database (MetPetDB) – Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute

[http://metpetdb.rpi.edu变质岩石学数据库(MetPetDB)] -伦斯勒理工学院,地球与环境科学系

  • Petrological Database of the Ocean Floor (PetDB) – Center for International Earth Science Information Network (CIESIN), Columbia University

 洋底岩石数据库(PetDB) -哥伦比亚大学,国际地球科学信息网中心(CIESIN)

 

Categories  分类

  • Petrology  岩石学
  • Petroleum geology  石油地质学
  • Oilfield terminology  油田术语

 

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Source > Wikipedia at en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Petrology

Translated by > BlogHost

Word Count > approx. 580 words in English

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