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Oneirophrenia

Oneirophrenia  梦呓性精神病

 

Oneirophrenia is a hallucinatory, dream-like state caused by several conditions such as prolonged sleep deprivation, sensory deprivation, or drugs (such as ibogaine). From the Greek words “ὄνειρο” (oneiro, “dream”) and “φρενός” (phrenos, “mind”). It has some of the characteristics of simple schizophrenia, such as a confusional state and clouding of consciousness, but without presenting the dissociative symptoms which are typical of this disorder.

Oneirophrenia梦呓性精神病是一个幻觉,梦境般的状态,由几个条件造成,如长时间失眠,丧失感觉知觉,或药物(如ibogaine伊菠加因这种抗抑郁药)。名词源自于希腊字“ὄνειρο(oneiro,“梦”)和“φρενός”(phrenos,“想”)。它有简单的精神分裂症的一些特点,譬如混乱状态和意识混浊,但没有出现这种疾病典型的游离症状。

Persons affected by oneirophrenia have a feeling of dream-like unreality which, in its extreme form, may progress to delusions and hallucinations. Therefore, it is considered a schizophrenia-like acute form of psychosis which remits in about 60% of cases within a period of two years. It is estimated that 50% or more of schizophrenic patients present oneirophrenia at least once.

受到梦呓性精神病影响的人会感觉到梦境般的不切实际,极端的话会演变成妄想和幻觉。因此,它被认为是类似精神分裂的急性精神失常状态,两年内有大约60%的案例会缓和。估计50%或更多的精神分裂症患者出现过至少一次的梦呓性精神状态。

Oneirophrenic patients are resistant to insulin and when injected with glucose, these patients take 30 to 50% longer to return to normal glycemia. The meaning of this finding is not known, but it has been hypothesized that it may be due to an insulin antagonist present in the blood during psychosis.

梦呓性精神病患者抗拒胰岛素,注射葡萄糖之后,这些患者用30%至50%更长的时间才能恢复到正常的血糖。这一发现的意义还未知,但有人立论假设可能是由于失常期间的血液中有胰岛素抗药剂。

Oneirophrenia was studied in the 1950s by the neurologist and psychiatrist Ladislas J. Meduna (1896-1964), also known as the discoverer of one of the forms of shock therapy, using the drug metrazol.

梦呓性精神病在20世纪50年代由神经学家和精神病学家Ladislas J.Meduna(1896年至1964年)研究发现,是利用药物强心剂发现的其中一种休克疗法。

Psychoanalysts, such as Claudio Naranjo, in the sixties have described the value of ibogaine-induced oneirophrenia for inducing and manipulating free fantasy and dream-like associations in patients under treatment.

六十年代的精神分析学家如Claudio Naranjo描述了抗抑郁药引起的梦呓性精神病的功能,就是促成和操纵接受治疗的患者产生自由幻想和梦幻般的联想。

Although it is still cited in diagnostic manuals of psychiatry, such as DSM-IV and in the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD), oneirophrenia as a separate entity is out of fashion nowadays.

虽然这个功能仍旧在精神病诊断手册中如DSM – IV和疾病与相关健康问题国际统计分类中被引用,梦呓性精神病这个分离出来的科目至今已经不流行。

 

References  参考文献

·      Meduna LJ: Oneirophrenia: The Confusional State. Urbana, University of Illinois Press, 1950.

Meduna LJ:“梦呓性精神病:混乱的状态”。Urbana,University of Illionois伊利诺伊大学出版社,1950年。

·      Naranjo, C. (1969). “Psychotherapeutic possibilities of new fantasy-enhancing drugs.” Clinical Toxicology 2(2):209

Naranjo,C(1969)。“新的幻想增强药物用作心理治疗的可能性”。临床毒理学2(2):209

.      Piotr Popil和Stanley D.Glick:“抗抑郁药用病历”

Piotr Popik and Stanley D. Glick: The Ibogaine Dossier

 

Categories  分类

  • Neurological disorders 神经系统失常
  • Historical and obsolete mental and behavioural disorders 历史性和过期的精神与行为失调

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Source > Wikipedia at en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oneirophrenia

Translated by > BlogHost

Word Count > approx. 380 words in English

 

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Echopraxia

March 7, 2012 Leave a comment

Echopraxia  模仿倾向

 

Echopraxia is the involuntary repetition or imitation of the observed movements of another. It is closely related to echolalia, the involuntary repetition of another’s speech. The etymology of the term is from Ancient Greek: ” ἠχώ (ēkhō) from ἠχή (ēkhē “sound”)” and “πρᾶξις (praksis, “action, activity, practice”)”. Echopraxia is also known as echomotism.[1]

Echopraxia模仿倾向是不自主地重复或模仿所观察到的另一个动作。这也跟echolalia模仿言语症有密切关联,也是不由自主地重复他人的话。这个词的来源是古希腊的ἠχώ (ēkhō)来自ἠχή (ēkhē“发音”)和πρᾶξις (praksis“行动,活动,实践”) 。模仿倾向症也被称为模仿动作(echomotism)。[1]

 

Even though it is considered a tic, it is a behaviour characteristic of some people with autism,[2] Tourette syndrome, Ganser syndrome, schizophrenia (especially catatonic schizophrenia), some forms of clinical depression and some other neurological disorders.

即使它被认为是口头禅 ,却是那些有自闭症的人的行为特征[2],包括(Tourette)图雷德综合征,(Ganser)冈瑟综合征,精神分裂症(尤其是紧张性精神分裂症),临床抑郁症和其他一些神经系统失常的病症。

 

See also  另见

  • Mirror neuron  (镜照)反射神经元

 

References  参考文献

[1]   ^ “Medical Dictionary Medilexicon”.  医学辞典

[2]   ^ Realmuto GM, August GJ (December 1991). “Catatonia in autistic disorder: a sign of comorbidity or variable expression?”. J Autism Dev Disord 21 (4): 517–28. doi:10.1007/BF02206874. PMID 1778964.

^ Realmuto GM,八月GJ(1991年12月)。““紧张症自闭症:共病症/合并症或变易表达方式的迹象?”。J自闭症开发异常21(4):517-28。doi:10.1007/BF02206874。PMID1778964。

 

Categories  分类

  • Tourette syndrome  图雷特氏综合征/症候群
  • Abnormal psychology  反常/变态心理学

 

Terms  名词

  • Coprolalia  秽语症
  • Copropraxia  秽亵行为倾向
  • Echolalia  模仿言语症
  • Echopraxia  模仿倾向
  • Palilalia  语言重复症
  • PANDAS-Pediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Disorders Associated with Streptococcal infections(A neuropsychiatric disorder occurring in children)

 与链球菌感染有关的小儿自体免疫神经精神异常 (发生在儿童身上的神经精神障碍)

  • Sensory phenomena •  感官现象
  • Tic •  抽搐
  • Tic disorder •  抽动失调
  • Tourettism  图雷特氏

 

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Source > Wikipedia at en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Echopraxia

Translated by > BlogHost

Word Count > approx. 230 words in English

Anhedonia

February 29, 2012 Leave a comment

Anhedonia  快感缺乏

 

In psychology and psychiatry, anhedonia (play /ˌænhiˈdoʊniə/ an-hee-doh-nee-ə; Greek: ἀν- an-, “without” + ἡδονή hēdonē, “pleasure”) is defined as the inability to experience pleasure from activities usually found enjoyable, e.g. hobbies, exercise, social interaction or sexual activity.

在心理学和精神病学里,快感缺乏(希腊语:ἀν- an-, “无”+ ἡδονή hēdonē ,“快感”)被定义为无法体验到一般上都愉快的活动中的乐趣,如嗜好,运动,社交或性事。

Anhedonia can be a characteristic of mental disorders including mood disorders, schizoaffective disorder, schizoid personality disorder and schizophrenia. Affected schizophrenic patients describe themselves as feeling emotionally empty.[1]

快感缺乏可以是精神错乱的特点,包括情绪失调,情感性分裂失调,人格分裂失调以及精神分裂症。受影响的精神分裂症患者形容自己感觉到情绪空虚。[1]

Mood disturbances are commonly observed in many psychiatric disorders. Disturbing mood changes may occur resultant to stressful life events and they are not uncommon during times of physical illness.[2] While anhedonia can be a feature of such mood changes, they are not mutually inclusive.

情绪干扰也常在许多精神失常的患者身上被观察到。情绪受干扰的变化可能会因为压力大的生活事件而引发,但是在身体有病时就不常见[2]。虽然快感缺乏可以是这种情绪变化的一个特点,但却不相包容。

 

Contents  目录

  • Causes  成因
  • Significance in depression  抑郁症的意义
  • Sexual anhedonia  缺乏性快感
  • See also  另见
  • References  参考文献
  • External links  外部链接

 

Causes  成因

Researchers theorize that anhedonia may result from the breakdown in the brain’s reward system, involving the neurotransmitter dopamine. Studies by Paul Keedwell, MD, then of King’s College, found that the brains of clinically depressed subjects had to work harder to process rewarding experiences.[3][4]

研究人员立论认为,快感缺乏可能是因为大脑中涉及神经传递素多巴胺的回馈系统崩溃。(King’s College)国王学院的Paul Keedwell医学博士的研究发现,临床实验中的抑郁者的大脑必须更加努力地处理回馈的经验。[3][4]

 

Significance in depression  抑郁症的意义

As a clinical symptom in depression, anhedonia rates highly in making a diagnosis of this disorder. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) describes a “lack of interest or pleasure” but these can be hard to tell apart given that people become less interested in things which do not give them pleasure. The DSM criterion of weight loss is probably related, and many depressed people with this symptom describe a lack of enjoyment of food. People suffering from anhedonia in association with depression generally feel good in the morning and unhappy in the evenings and can portray any of the non-psychotic symptoms and signs of depression.[5]

作为抑郁症的临床症状之一,快感缺乏在这种疾病的诊断中占的比例很高。精神失调诊断和统计手册(DSM)形容的“缺乏兴趣或愉悦”还是无法跟其他人对无法产生乐趣的事不感兴趣区别开来。DSM的减重标准或许还有点关联,许多有这种症状抑郁的人都形容他们享受不到食物的美味。缺乏快感又忧郁的人一般都在早晨感觉良好在晚上感到不高兴,而且看不出有任何非精神病的症状和抑郁症的迹象。[5]

 

Sexual anhedonia  缺乏性快感

Main article: Pleasure Dissociative Orgasmic Disorder

主文:乐趣解离性高潮障碍

Sexual anhedonia in males is also known as ‘ejaculatory anhedonia’. This condition means that the person will ejaculate with no accompanying sense of pleasure.

男性的性快感缺乏也称为“缺乏射精快感”。这种情况意味着这个人射精时没有常有的伴随快感。

The condition is most frequently found in males, but women can suffer from lack of pleasure when the body goes through the orgasm process as well.

这种状况最常在男性身上发现,但女性的身体在性高潮过程中也可以缺乏快感。

Sexual anhedonia may be caused by:

性快感缺乏的原因可能是:

  • Hyperprolactinaemia  超高泌乳素分泌
  • Hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD), also called inhibited sexual desire  不活跃性欲失调(HSDD),也叫做抑制性欲
  • Low levels of the hormone testosterone  低水平荷尔蒙睾丸激素
  • Spinal cord injury  脊髓损伤
  • Multiple Sclerosis  多发性硬化症
  • Use (or previous use) of SSRI antidepressants[6]  使用(或使用过)SSRI类抗抑郁药物[6]
  • Use (or previous use) of antidopaminergic neuroleptics[7][8]  使用(或使用过)抗多巴胺类的神经松弛剂[7][8]
  • Fatigue  疲劳
  • Physical illness  身体上的疾病

It is very uncommon that a neurological examination and blood tests can determine the cause of a specific case of sexual anhedonia.

很少见到神经系统检查和血液化验可以确定特定性快感缺乏案例的成因。

Patients may be prescribed sustained-release bupropion to aid in treatment, which has been shown to relieve sexual dysfunction even in patients without depression.[9]

患者可以被配发纾缓的安非他酮协助治疗,这种药物已经证明可以纾缓性功能障碍,就连没有抑郁症的患者用了也有效。[9]

 

See also  另见

  • Dysthymia  慢性抑郁症
  • Clinical depression  临床抑郁症
  • Schizophrenia  精神分裂症

 

References  参考文献

[1] ^ Hales R., Yudofsky S., Talbott J. 1999. Textbook of Psychiatry 3rd ed. Washington DC: The American Psychiatric Press.

^ Hales R., Yudofsky S., Talbott K. 1999年,精神病学教科书第三版。华盛顿特区:美国精神病学出版社

[2] ^ Gelder, Michael G.; Mayou, Richard; Geddes, John; Geddes, John (2005). Psychiatry (3rd ed.). Oxford University Press. pp. 2, 99. ISBN 978-0-19-852863-0.

^  Gelder, Michael G.; Mayou, Richard; Geddes, John; Geddes, John (2005)。“精神病学”(第三版)。牛津大学出版社。第2页,99。 ISBN 978-0-19-852863-0。

[3] ^ “No Pleasure, No Reward — Plenty of Depression” by John McManamy; URL accessed 2009-02-17

^ “没有乐趣,没有奖励 – 大幅度的抑郁症”John McManamy著; 2009-02-17网上治疗

[4] ^ Surguladze, S. (2003). “Neural systems underlying affective disorders”. Advances in Psychiatric Treatment 9 (6): 446–55. doi:10.1192/apt.9.6.446.

^ Surguladze,S.(2003)。“神经系统的基本情感障碍”。精神病治疗的进展9(6):446-55。 数位物件识别码doi:10.1192/apt.9.6.446。

[5] ^ Tomb, David A. (1 August 2007). Psychiatry. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. p. 44. ISBN 978-0-7817-7452-9. Retrieved 18 December 2010.

^ Tomb, David A. (2007年8月1日)。“精神病”Lippincott Williams与Wilkins著。第44页。ISBN978-0-7817-7452-9。2001年12月18日索取。

[6] ^ Csoka, Antonei; Bahrick, Audrey; Mehtonen, Olli-Pekka (2007). “Persistent Sexual Dysfunction after Discontinuation of Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors”. Journal of Sexual Medicine 5 (1): 227–233. 数位物件识别码doi:10.1111/j.1743-6109.2007.00630.x. PMID 18173768.

^ Csoka, Antonei; Bahrick, Audrey; Mehtonen, Oli-Pekka (2007)。“选择性血清素中止后的持久性性功能障碍的再摄取抑制剂”性医学学报5(1):227-233。数位物件识别码doi:10.1111/j.1743-6109.2007.00630.x。PMID数据库检索编码18173768。

[7] ^ Tupala, E; Haapalinna, A; Viitamaa, T; Männistö, PT; Saano, V (1999). “Effects of repeated low dose administration and withdrawal of haloperidol on sexual behaviour of male rats”. Pharmacology & toxicology 84 (6): 292–5. PMID 10401732.

^ Tupala, E; Haapalinna, A; Viitamaa, T; Männistö, PT; Saano,V(1999)。“反复低剂量氟哌啶醇对雄性大鼠性行为的管理和退出的影响”。药理学与毒理学84(6):292-5。PMID数据库检索10401732。

[8] ^ Martin-Du Pan, R (1978). “Neuroleptics and sexual dysfunction in man. Neuroendocrine aspects”. Schweizer Archiv fur Neurologie, Neurochirurgie und Psychiatrie = Archives suisses de neurologie, neurochirurgie et de psychiatrie 122 (2): 285–313. PMID 29337.

^ Martin-Du Pan, R(1978)。“抗精神病药和男子性功能障碍。神经内分泌方面”。Schweizer档案中的Neurologie,Neurochirurgie和Psychiatrie= suisses de neurologie,neurochirurgieet et de psychiatrie 档案122(2):285-313。PMID数据库检索编码29337。

[9] ^ Crenshaw, Theresa L.; Goldberg, James P.; Stern, Warren C. (1987). “Pharmacologic modification of psychosexual dysfunction”. Journal of Sex & Marital Therapy 13 (4): 239–52. doi:10.1080/00926238708403896. PMID 3121861.

^ Crenshaw, Theresa L; Goldberg, James P.; Stern,Warren (1987)。“心理性功能障碍的药物修改”。性与婚姻治疗学报13(4):239-52。数位物件识别码doi:10.1080/00926238708403896。PMID数据库检索编码3121861。

 

External links  外部链接

  • Anhedonia – Bipolar Disorder Symptoms快感缺乏 – 躁郁症的症状
  • No Pleasure, No Reward 没有乐趣,没有奖励
  • Forum: “Ejaculation without orgasm” forum (hisandherhealth.com)

 论坛:“没有性高潮射精”论坛(hisandherhealth.com)

  • Forum: “Ejaculatoryanhedonia.com”

 论坛:“Ejaculatoryanhedonia.com” 缺乏快感的射精網站

 

Categories  分类

Symptoms and signs  症状与迹象

  • Cognition 认知,perception 感知,emotional state and behaviour 情绪状态和行为
  • Mood disorders 情绪障碍/心情失调

Symptoms  症状

  • Hallucination 幻觉 · Delusion 妄想 · Emotional dysregulation 情绪失调(Anhedonia, Dysphoria, Suicidal ideation) (快感缺乏/失乐症状,烦躁症,自杀构想) · Sleep disorder  睡眠障碍(Hypersomnia嗜睡,, Insomnia失眠) · Psychosis  妄想症 · Racing thoughts  快速遊走的意念

Spectrum  频谱

  • Bipolar disorder  双向(相)障碍/双极性情感疾患(Bipolar I 躁郁症一型, Bipolar II 躁郁症二型, Bipolar NOS 另类躁郁症) · Cyclothymia 循环型情感症/情感交替异常 · Dysthymia 心境恶劣障碍/慢性抑郁症 · Manic depressive disorder  躁郁症 · Schizoaffective disorder  情感性精神分裂症
  • Mania 躁狂• Mixed state 烦躁狂混杂状态 · Hypomania 轻度躁狂 · Major depressive episode 重郁症发作 · Rapid cycling  快速循环

Treatment 治疗:Anticonvulsants  抗癫痫药物

  • Carbamazepine 卡马西平• Gabapentin 加巴喷丁· Lamotrigine 拉莫三嗪 · Oxcarbazepine 奥卡西平托吡酯 · Topiramate 托吡酯 · Valproic acid 丙戊酸(Sodium valproate 丙基戊酸钠, Valproate semisodium 丙基戊半酸钠,semisodium 半酸钠)

Other mood stabilizers  其他情绪镇定剂

  • Lithium pharmacology 锂药学(Lithium 锂)
  • (carbonate 碳酸盐, Lithium citrate 碳酸锂, Lithium sulfate 硫酸锂) · Antipsychotics 抗精神病药物

Non-pharmaceutical  非药品类

·      Clinical psychology 临床心理学 · Electroconvulsive therapy 电痉挛治疗· Involuntary commitment  非自愿参与 · Light therapy 光疗法 · Psychotherapy 心理疗法 · Transcranial magnetic stimulation 经颅磁刺激法 · Cognitive behavioral therapy 认知行为疗法

—— END ——

 

Source > Wikipedia at en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anhedonia

Translated by > BlogHost

Word Count > approx. 1000 words in English

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