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Prostate Cancer

Vitamin E tied to higher risk of prostate cancer

维生素E跟患前列腺癌的高风险有關

 

Men taking daily vitamin E were more likely to get prostate cancer than those not taking the dietary supplement, according to a study of close to 35,000 North Americans.

每日服用维生素E的男性比那些不服用膳食补充剂的人更容易患上前列腺癌,这是根据一项有三万五千名北美人参与的研究所发现的。

This means that over a decade, one or two men out of 100 taking vitamin E would be expected to get prostate cancer, said the researchers, whose findings were published in the Journal of the American Medical Association.

研究员说,这就表示了十多年来,每一百位服用维生素E的男性中有一两位会患上前列腺癌,这项研究结果已经在在美国医学协会杂志上发表。

“If you have enough of these vitamins in your system…extra doesn’t help you any, and too much of something like this can be harmful,” said Eric Klein from the Cleveland Clinic, one of the study’s authors, to Reuters Health.

其中一位来自Cleveland诊所的报告书作者之一的Eric Klein对路透社健康版的记者说,“如果你体内的系统已经有足够的维生素,再多一些是一点助益也没有,而且太多的话还可能对你有害。”

The findings come on the heels of a study suggesting that older women who take multivitamins have slightly increased death rates compared to those who don’t.

这项研究也证实了另一项研究的觀點認為,吃多种维生素合成药剂的年长妇女的死亡率比起那些不吃的人来得高。

“There’s a theme here that taking vitamins is not only not helpful but could be harmful” in people who are not deficient in vitamins, Klein added.

Klein说:“这里的主题是说,服用合成维生素药丸对那些不缺维生素的人不但没有帮助而且还可能有害。”

But one researcher who wasn’t part of the new study said he doubted it means vitamin E causes prostate cancer.

但是,有一位不属于这项研究的研究员说,他很怀疑这项研究可以断定维生素E会导致前列腺癌。

“It’s an interesting finding. I’m not sure I believe it,” said Neil Fleshner, from the University of Toronto, adding that the result may have been a chance finding or false positive.

来自多伦多大学的Neil Fleshner说,“这是个有趣的发现,但我不确定要不要相信。”他补充说,这项研究结果还是有可能是个案的假象。

For the study, men in the United States, Canada and Puerto Rico were randomly assigned to one of four groups. Starting between 2001 and 2004, about 9,000 men in each group took daily supplements of 400 international units (IU) of vitamin E, 200 micrograms of selenium, vitamin E and selenium together or a vitamin-free placebo pill.

这项研究随机地把来自美国,加拿大和波多黎各的男性分配到四个小组,从2001到2004年间,每一组都有九千多人每天吞食有四百个国际单位(IU)的维生素E合成药丸,两百微克的

200微克的硒,维生素E和硒一起吃或者没有维生素的安慰剂药丸。

The study was halted in late 2008 when the researchers saw a hint of an increased risk of prostate cancer in the men taking vitamin E. But they kept monitoring men for cancer after they stopped taking the supplements. It turned out that the extra risk became clearer over time.

到了2008年年尾,研究员看到服用维生素E的男性患上前列腺癌的风险有增加的迹象时,这项研究马上终止,但他们继续观察患癌的人在停止服用补充剂后的状况,结果时日一久风险就越明显。

By mid-2011, about seven percent of men who had taken vitamin E only had gotten prostate cancer, compared to six percent of those assigned to placebo pills.

2011年年中,只有大约7%吃过维生素E药丸的人已经得到前列腺癌,而分配到安慰剂药丸的人患癌的有6%。

The researchers did not find an extra risk of prostate cancer in men who took only selenium or vitamin E together with selenium.

研究员并没有发现那些只吃硒或维生素E与硒一起吃的的男性有患上前列腺癌的的额外风险。

Klein and his colleagues said it’s not clear how vitamin E would increase the risk of prostate cancer, and that not all past studies have shown it does any harm to the prostate. Some have even found a lower prostate-cancer risk with vitamin E.

Klein和他的同事们说,目前还不清楚维生素E是如何会增加患前列腺癌的风险,但并不是所有以前的研究都显示对前列腺有害,有些人甚至发现维生素E使到患前列腺癌的风险降低。

He added that the new findings aren’t definite proof that vitamin E causes extra prostate cancers, but that there wasn’t anything else that could explain why men taking the vitamin were more likely to be diagnosed with cancer — for example, they weren’t screened more frequently.

他补充说,这个新发现并没有明确地证明维生素E会产生多余的前列腺癌细胞,但也没有其他理由可以解释为什么服用维生素的男性更容易被诊断出致癌—譬如说,他们并没有接受很多次的断层扫描。

The supplement doses, he added, are much higher than what’s in most over-the-counter multivitamins, which typically contain 15 to 25 IU of vitamin E.

他接着说,补充剂量比起大多数的柜台在卖的多种维生素药丸还高得多,都有15至25 IU的维生素E成份在内。

Fleshner said that either way, vitamin E doesn’t seem to be beneficial for prostate health.

Fleshner说,无论是哪一种吃法,维生素E似乎都对前列腺的健康没有好处。

“There’s certainly no major evidence that vitamin E helps, so why bother?” he said.

他说,“当然也没有主要的证据显示维生素E对健康有益,那又何必管是怎么个吃法?”

While vitamin supplements are known to prevent disease in people who have vitamin deficiencies, so far studies haven’t found much extra benefit in people who already get enough vitamins through their diet. Specifically, vitamin E has not been shown to protect against heart disease, colon cancer or lung cancer.

大家都知道维生素补充剂是用来防止缺维生素的人患病,到目前为止,各项研究并没有发现在食谱中摄取足够维生素的人有得到更多的好处,特别是维生素E并没有显示出能有效防止心脏病,结肠癌或肺癌。

On the other hand, there is a growing body of evidence suggesting supplements may be harmful in high doses.

另一方面,有越来越多的证据在暗示剂量太多可能对身体有害。

“Vitamins are not innocuous substances,” Klein said.

Klein说,“维生素并不是无害的物质。”

 

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Source > Reuters-路透社,October 12, 2011

Translated by > BlogHost

Word Count > approx. 600 words in English

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Osteoporosis

Taking vitamin E linked to osteoporosis: Japanese research

服用维生素E跟骨质疏鬆症的關係:日本人的研究

 

Japanese scientists say they have found a link between consumption of vitamin E and the degenerative bone condition osteoporosis, in a study likely to shed new light on the use of supplements.

日本科学家说,他们已经发现了维生素E的食用跟退化性骨胳状况的骨质疏松症之间的关联,这一项研究将会给这种补充剂的使用提供新的认知。

Researchers found that giving mice increased doses of the vitamin to a level similar to that found in supplements caused the animals’ bones to thin.

研究人员发现,给小老鼠增加跟维生素补充剂一样的数量时会造成动物的骨胳变薄。

The mice developed osteoporosis after eight weeks on the diet, which had levels of vitamin E significantly higher than those found in a mouse’s natural diet, according to the study, published in the journal Nature Medicine.

根据这项在“自然科学”杂志上发表的研究报告,小老鼠维持这种食谱八个星期后导致骨质疏松,维生素E的含量明显高过老鼠的自然食谱。

The team, led by Shu Takeda of Keio University, said vitamin E stimulates the generation of bone-degrading cells, which normally work with bone-forming cells to maintain bone strength.

这个由應慶義塾大学的武田先生领导的研究队伍说, 维生素E刺激了骨胳退化的细胞去生长,这种细胞通常都跟制造骨质的细胞携手合作来维持骨骼的强度。

Osteoporosis is a disease that causes the thinning of bone tissue and loss of bone density over time. It often affects older people, particularly women, who may become more prone to bone fractures.

骨质疏松症是一种疾病,时日久了會导致骨质的骨纤维组织变薄和流失骨质的密度,最常影响到老年人,尤其是妇女,更容易骨折。

Vitamin E is found naturally in various foods including vegetable oil, nuts and some leafy vegetables.

维生素E在各种食物如植物油,坚果和一些绿叶蔬菜之中都是天然的要素。

It is also a popular health supplement as an antioxidant, and is widely believed to enhance health and slow problems related to ageing.

它也是一种流行的保健补充品,有抗氧化的功效,人们普遍认为可以用它来促进健康和减轻跟老化有关的问题。

The study called for greater research into how enhanced levels of vitamin E affect human health.

這項研究呼吁開展更多研究来找出补强的维生素E如何影响人们的健康。

“It is possible that with the volume (of vitamin E) contained in health supplements, bones may become fragile,” Takeda told the Mainichi Shimbun newspaper.

“这是有可能的事,保健品中的维生素E含量可能会使骨骼变脆弱。”武田告诉每日新闻报。

The findings come after researchers found mice that had been genetically modified to be deficient in vitamin E had a high bone density.

这项研究结果是在研究人员把小老鼠的基因修改成缺乏维生素E后,反而拥有更高的骨质密度后发现的现象。

 

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Source > Agence France-Presse-法新社, March 6, 2012

Translated by > BlogHost

Word Count > approx. 280 words in English

Vitamin D

Vitamin D supplements can lower risk of dying

补充维生素D可降低死亡的风险

 

Boosting the level of vitamin D by using supplements for someone who is vitamin D deficient can lower his risk of dying by 60 percent, a new study found.

一项新的研究发现,为欠缺维他命D的人提供补充维生素可以加强维他命D的水平,降低60%的死亡风险。

Analyzing data on 10,889 patients, University of Kansas Hospital researchers found that 70 percent of them were deficient in vitamin D, with levels below the 30 nanograms per millilitre considered necessary for good health.

分析10889个病例患者的数据之后,堪萨斯大学医院的研究人员发现,其中70%缺乏维生素D的病人缺乏健康良好所需的低于每毫升30毫微克的水平。

After taking into account the patients’ medical history, medication and other factors, the cardiologists found that people with deficient levels of vitamin D were more than twice as likely to have diabetes. 40 per cent more likely to have high blood pressure and about 30 percent more likely to suffer from cardiomyopathy-diseased heart muscle-as people without this deficiency.

考虑到病人的病史,药物和其他因素后,心脏病学家发现,缺乏维生素D的人比起不缺乏的人有两倍以上的机率患上糖尿病,40%的机率有高血压,大约有30%机率会患上有心脏病菌的心肌病。

Overall, those who were deficient in vitamin D had a three-fold higher likelihood of dying from any cause than those who were not deficient, the researchers reported in the American Journal of Cardiology.

总的来说,那些缺乏维生素D的人比起那些不欠缺的人有三倍可能性会死于任何病因,这是研究人员在美国心脏病学杂志提出的报告。

When the tem look at people who took vitamin D supplements, their risk of death from any cause was about 60 per cent lower than the rest of the patients, although the effect was strongest among those who were vitamin D deficient at the time they were tested.

研究小组观察了食用维生素D补充剂的人发现,他们因为任何原因引起的死亡风险比其余的患者低了60%左右,虽然效果会在这些人进行测试期欠缺维生素D时最明显。

Vitamin D deficiency has been linked to a range of illnesses, but few studies have demonstrated that supplements could prevent those diseases.

欠缺维生素D跟一系列疾病有关联,但很少有研究显示补充剂可以预防这些疾病。

Dr.James L.Vacek, a professor of cardiology at the University of Kansas Hospital and Medical Center, said : “We expected to see a relationship between heart disease and vitamin D deficiency; we were surprised at how strong it was.”

堪萨斯州大学医院和医疗中心心脏病科教授Dr.James L. Vacek说:“我们有准备看到心脏疾病和维生素D缺乏症之间的关系,但关联之紧密让我们感到惊讶。”

But the study does not prove that vitamin D is the cause of the effects seen. Other factors, such as disease, could be responsible both for the differences in health and the differences in vitamin D levels.

但这项研究并没有证明维生素D是所观察到的效果的主因。其他因素如病菌也可能造成健康与维生素D不同水平之间的差异。

Still, people should get about 90 per cent of vitamin D from the sun and about 10 per cent from food, Dr Vacek said.

Vacek博士说,尽管如此,人们还是应该从阳光中吸收大约90%的维生素D以及从食物中摄取大约10%的维生素D。

The human body makes vitamin D in response to skin exposure to sunlight. At least 10 minutes of full-body exposure to sunlight each day is required to get a sufficient amount of vitamin D, Dr Vacek said.

皮肤暴露在阳光下时人体会制造维生素D。Vacek博士说,每天有至少10分钟让全身暴露在阳光下才能得到足够的维生素D含量。

Certain types of food, such as oily fish, eggs and enriched milk products, are also good sources of vitamin D.

某些食物,如油性鱼,蛋和加工的奶类制品,也是维生素D的好来源。

The findings mean that adults should consider getting their vitamin D levels checked through a simple blood test and take vitamin D supplements if they are deficient, said Dr Vacek.

Vacek博士说,这个发现意味着,成年人应该考虑通过简单的血液测试去检查他们的维生素D水平,如果有所欠缺,就吃维生素D补充剂。

He said: “If you’re not deficient, vitamin D is not a magic pill that will make you live longer. Its benefit is in people who are deficient.”

他说:“如果你不缺乏,维生素D也不是什么神奇药丸能让你活得更长久。它只是对欠缺的人有好处。”

 

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Source > Newspaper Article

Translated by > BlogHost

Word Count > approx. 500 words in English

Vegan Effects

March 14, 2012 1 comment

Side Effects of Becoming a Vegetarian

成为素食者的副作用

 

A vegetarian diet is a healthy choice if you pay attention to nutritional requirements and follow a balanced eating plan. The Mayo Clinic created a vegetarian food pyramid that recommends daily food intake of six servings of grains, five servings of nuts, beans, legumes and other protein foods, four servings of vegetables, two of fruit and two of unsaturated fats. (See References 5) Inattention to dietary needs can create side effects that are unpleasant and unhealthy. For vegans, who avoid all animal products, countering potential dietary deficiencies is particularly important.

如果你注重营养的需求和追随一套平衡的饮食计划,素食食谱就是一项健康的选择。Maya诊所建立了一套金字塔式的素食表推荐每日要吃的六份谷物,五份坚果,干豆,豆类和其他蛋白质食物,四份蔬菜,两份水果和两份不饱和脂肪(见参考文献5)。忽视饮食需要会产生一些不舒服和不健康的副作用,对素食者来说,避免吃任何动物的肉类就更需要其他食物来源去应付营养不足的潜在问题。

 

Vitamin B12 Deficiency  缺乏维生素B12

If you are a strict vegetarian and eat no dairy, eggs or other animal products, your diet may be deficient in vitamin B12. Symptoms of vitamin B12 deficiency include anemia, weakness, poor balance and tingling in the arms and legs, according to the University of Maryland Medical Center. B12 is important for metabolism, maintenance of the central nervous system and the formation of red blood cells. Vegetarian sources of B12 include fortified grains and nutritional yeast, as well as vitamin supplements. (See References 1)

如果你是个严格的素食主义者,不吃乳制品,蛋或其他动物食品,你的食谱中可能会缺乏维生素B-12。根据马里兰大学医疗中心的报告,缺乏维生素B-12的症状有贫血,虚弱,平衡感差以及手脚刺痛。B-12对新陈代谢,中枢神经系统和红血球的形成与维护都重要。素食者的B12食物来源包括一些强化营养的谷物和营养酵母,还有维生素补充剂(见参考文献1)。

 

Iron Deficiency 缺铁性贫血

The most readily absorbed iron is available in foods many vegetarians do not consume: red meats, poultry and fish. A lack of sufficient iron can cause anemia. Symptoms of low iron include exhaustion, weakness, slow cognitive development, chills and increased susceptibility to infection. Women who suffer from iron deficiency can give birth to premature or low birth weight infants. But the type of iron found in beans, lentils, enriched grains, spinach, raisins and tofu is adequate for normal nutritional needs. The National Institutes for Health recommends that vegetarians get twice as much iron as non-vegetarians because the type of iron they consume is more difficult to absorb. NIH advises vegetarians to increase iron absorption by taking vitamin C or consuming citrus with plant-based iron sources. (See References 4)

最容易被人体吸收的铁质都在许多素食者不吃的食品中如红肉,家禽和鱼类。因此,缺铁可以导致贫血,缺铁的症状包括疲惫,虚弱,认知过程缓慢,畏寒,以及容易被细菌感染。缺铁的妇女可以难产或产下体重轻的婴儿。但是,豆类,扁豆,加工谷物,菠菜,葡萄干和豆腐里的铁质都能提供正常的营养需求。国家健康研究院建议素食者摄取比非素食者多两倍的铁质,因为这类铁质比较不容易被身体吸收,另外也劝告素食者要多摄取维生素C或吃更多含铁质丰富的柑橘类植物来增加铁质的吸收(见参考文献4)。

 

Zinc Deficiency 缺锌

Zinc helps you to smell and taste. It’s also important for the immune system — zinc helps wounds heal, is a factor in cell division and cell growth and contributes to the process of carbohydrate break down. Zinc is found in high protein foods like meats and dark meat poultry, so vegans and many vegetarians can develop a zinc deficiency. That could result in poor appetite, frequent infections, hair loss and a host of other symptoms. One good way for vegetarians to consume zinc is by eating legumes, peanuts and peanut butter, although zinc from animal protein is more readily absorbed by the body. (See References 3)

锌可以加强你的嗅觉和味觉,对你的免疫系统也很重要,譬如助你愈合伤口,促进细胞的分裂与生长,在碳水化合物分解的过程中做出贡献。锌可以在高蛋白食物如肉类和深色家畜的肉类里找到,因此许多素食者都会缺锌,造成食欲不佳,经常感染细菌,掉头发和其他症状。素食者摄取锌的一个好办法是食用豆类,花生和花生酱,虽然动物的蛋白质里的锌比较容易被人体吸收(见参考文献3)。

 

Calcium and Bone Loss 钙和骨质的流失

Strong bones need calcium and one of the best ways to get it is from dairy products. If milk, yogurt and butter aren’t part of your diet, look for cereals, breads and juices that have added calcium, fortified tofu, kale, broccoli and Chinese cabbage. Calcium shortages can lead to thinning bone density and osteoporosis, dental problems and other medical conditions. Calcium helps blood to circulate through the body, muscles to move, nerves to transmit messages from the brain, and it releases hormones and enzymes. The NIH points out that calcium supplements can interfere with some medications so you should check with your health care provider before adding supplements to any diet. (See References 6)

强硬的骨骼需要钙质,其中一个最好的摄取来源就是来自奶制品。如果牛奶,酸奶和黄油不是你的饮食中的一部分,那么就找谷类,面包,果汁这些有较多钙质和拥有丰富钙质的豆腐,羽衣甘蓝,花椰菜和大白菜来吃。缺钙会导致骨质密度稀薄和骨质疏松,牙齿问题和其他病况。钙质促进全身的血液循环,肌肉的运动,神经元传送发自大脑的讯息,释放荷尔蒙和酶。国家健康研究院指出,钙质补充剂会干扰某些药物,因此在添加任何补充剂在你的食谱里以前,你必须先跟你的医疗保健供应人查询清楚(见参考文献6)。

 

References 参考文献

1. University of Maryland Medical Center: Vitamin B12 — Side Effects

美国马里兰大学医疗中心:维生素B12的副作用

2. University of Maryland Medical Center: Vitamin B12 Benefits

美国马里兰大学医疗中心:维生素B12的优点

3. University of Maryland Medical Center: Zinc in Diet — All Information

美国马里兰大学医疗中心:饮食中的锌的所有资讯

4. National Institutes for Health Office of Dietary Supplements: Iron

国家健康研究院的膳食补充剂办公室:铁

5. Mayo Clinic: Vegetarian Diet: How to Get the Best Nutrition

Mayo诊所:如何从素食中摄取最佳营养

6. National Institutes for Health Office of Dietary Supplements: Calcium

国家健康研究院的膳食补充剂办公室:钙

by Benna Crawford, Demand Media 由BennaCrawford点播媒体提供

 

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Source > National Geographic Environment  国家地理杂志环境版

Translated by > BlogHost

Word Count > approx. 620 words in English

Vegan Diet

March 14, 2012 Leave a comment

Vegetarian diet: How to get the best nutrition

如何从素食中摄取最佳营养

 

A well-planned vegetarian diet is a healthy way to meet your nutritional needs. Find out what you need to know about a plant-based diet.

一个精心策划的素食食谱能满足您的营养需求,也是一个健康之道,去找出以植物为本的食谱知道更多内容。

You may follow a vegetarian diet for cultural, religious or ethical reasons. Or you may eat a vegetarian diet to stay healthy and prevent health problems, such as cardiovascular disease. Whatever your reasons for choosing a vegetarian diet, this guide will help you make smart choices to ensure that you meet your daily nutritional needs.

你也许会因为文化,宗教或道德的原因而接受素食的饮食方式,或许是为了健康或避免生病才这么吃,譬如要预防心血管疾病。不论是什么原因,这本指南可以协助你做出明智的选择,确保您得到每日的营养需求。

Indeed, a well-planned vegetarian diet can meet the needs of people of all ages, including children, teenagers, and pregnant or breast-feeding women. The key is to be aware of your nutritional needs so that you plan a diet that meets them. If you aren’t sure how to create a vegetarian diet that’s right for you, talk with your doctor and a registered dietitian.

事实上,一个精心策划的素食食谱都可以满足所有年龄所有人的需求,包括小孩,青少年,孕妇或喂母乳的妇女。关键是要知道你需要哪些营养才可以规划你的食谱来满足需求,如果你无法确定如何开出适合自己的素食食谱,那就需要跟你的医生与合格营养师谈谈。

 

Types of vegetarian diets  素食的种类

When people think about a vegetarian diet, they typically think about a diet that doesn’t include meat, poultry or fish. But vegetarian diets can be further categorized into three types:

每当人们一提起素食,他们就会很刻板地认为这个食谱里没有肉类,家畜或鱼肉,但是素食也可以进一步分成三大类:

Vegan diets exclude meat, poultry, fish, eggs and dairy products — and foods that contain these products.

素食者–排除肉类,家畜,鱼肉,蛋和乳制品以及其他包含这种成份的食品。

Lacto-vegetarian diets exclude meat, fish, poultry and eggs, as well as foods that contain them. Dairy products, such as milk, cheese, yogurt and butter, are allowed in a lacto-vegetarian diet.

奶类素食—排除肉类,鱼肉,家畜和蛋,以及其他包含这些成份的食品,但可以接受鲜奶,乳酪,酸奶和奶油。

Lacto-ovo vegetarian diets exclude meat, fish and poultry, but allow eggs and dairy products.

蛋奶素食—排除肉类,鱼肉和家畜,允许吃蛋和乳制品。

Some people follow a semivegetarian diet — also called a flexitarian diet — which is primarily a plant-based diet but includes meat, dairy, eggs, poultry and fish on occasion or in small quantities.

有些人还实行半素食食谱,也叫做灵活食谱,还是以植物为本,包括肉类,乳制品,蛋,家畜和鱼肉,在某些社交场合里可以小量接受。

 

Getting adequate nutrition  摄取足够的营养

The key to a healthy vegetarian diet — like any diet — is to enjoy a variety of foods. No single food can provide all the nutrients your body needs. The more restrictive a diet is, the more challenging it is to get all the nutrients you need. A vegan diet, for example, eliminates food sources of vitamin B-12, as well as milk products, which are good sources of calcium. Therefore, you may need to make an extra effort to ensure that your vegetarian diet includes sufficient quantities of the following nutrients:

健康素食的关键就跟任何食谱一样是为了享用各种食物,因为没有任何单一的食物可以提供你的身体所需的全部营养,食谱越是局限,摄取所有所需营养就越具有挑战性。譬如说,素食食谱就排除了维生素B-12的食物来源,还有鲜奶制品这个钙质的好来源。因此,你必须多努力确保你的素食食谱里有各种足够的营养含量:

Calcium helps build and maintain strong teeth and bones. Milk and low-fat dairy foods are highest in calcium. Dark green vegetables, such as turnip and collard greens, kale and broccoli, are good plant sources when eaten in sufficient quantities. Calcium-enriched and fortified products, including juices, cereals, soy milk, soy yogurt and tofu, are other options.

钙质可以生出和维持强有力的牙齿和骨骼,牛奶和低脂奶制品的含钙量最高。深绿色的蔬菜如萝卜,羽衣甘蓝叶,甘蓝类蔬菜和西兰花如果吃得够,都是好的食物源。钙质丰富和强有力的食品如果汁,麦片,豆奶,大豆酸奶和豆腐也是其他选项。

Iodine is a component in thyroid hormones, which help regulate metabolism, growth and function of many key organs, such as the brain, heart, kidney and thyroid. Vegans may not consume enough iodine and be at risk of iodine deficiency and possibly goiter. In addition, foods such as soybeans, cruciferous vegetables and sweet potatoes may promote goiter. Because food manufacturers may not use iodized salt in processed foods, vegans may want to ensure that they use salt with iodine at the table or in cooking. Just 1/4 teaspoon provides a significant amount of iodine.

碘是甲状腺激素的组成部分,有助于调节新陈代谢和其他主要器官如大脑,心脏,肾脏和甲状腺的成长和功能,素食者可能摄取的碘不足够而面对缺碘或甲状腺肿大的风险。此外,大豆,十字花科蔬菜,红番薯等食物也可能会造成甲状腺肿大。由于食品厂商不一定会在加工食品中加入碘盐,素食者或许得确保餐桌上或烹煮时有加盐和碘,只需四分之一汤匙就有相当含量的碘在内。

Iron is a crucial component of red blood cells. Dried beans and peas, lentils, enriched cereals, whole-grain products, dark leafy green vegetables and dried fruit are good sources of iron. Because iron isn’t as easily absorbed from plant sources, the recommended intake of iron for vegetarians is almost double that recommended for nonvegetarians. To help your body absorb iron, eat foods rich in vitamin C, such as strawberries, citrus fruits, tomatoes, cabbage and broccoli, at the same time as you’re eating iron-containing foods.

铁是红血球的重要组成成份,干豆和豌豆,扁豆,多营养谷物,全麦制品,深绿叶蔬菜和干果里都有铁质。由于铁质不容易被植物吸收,就得建议素食者吃得比非素食者多一倍这些蔬菜,好让你的身体可以吸收铁质,也要吃维生素C丰富的食物如草莓,柑橘类水果,番茄,白菜和西兰花,同时也吃其他含铁质的食物。

Omega-3 fatty acids are important for cardiovascular health as well as eye and brain development. Vegetarian diets that do not include fish and eggs are generally low in active forms of omega-3 fats. Because conversion of the plant-based omega-3 to the types used by humans is inefficient, you may want to consider fortified products or supplements or both.

Omega-3脂肪酸对心血管健康,以及眼睛和大脑的发育都重要,素食者的食谱里如果没有鱼和蛋一般上都比较缺乏活性的Omega-3脂肪酸。由于从食物的Omega-3转换成人体需要的成份不足,你或许要考虑营养成份较强的食品或补充剂或两者兼而有之。

Protein helps maintain healthy skin, bones, muscles and organs. Eggs and dairy products are good sources, and you don’t need to eat large amounts to meet your protein needs. You can also get sufficient protein from plant-based foods if you eat a variety of them throughout the day. Plant sources include soy products and meat substitutes, legumes, lentils, nuts, seeds and whole grains.

蛋白质有助于维持皮肤,骨骼,肌肉和器官的健康。鸡蛋和奶制品是很好的来源,你不需要大量地吃来满足您的蛋白质需求。 如果你能够在一天内吃很多种,也可以从植物为本的食物中得到足够的蛋白质。植物食品的来源包括豆制品,肉类替代品,豆类,扁豆,坚果,种子和粗粮。

Vitamin B-12 is necessary to produce red blood cells and prevent anemia. This vitamin is found almost exclusively in animal products, so it can be difficult to get enough B-12 on a vegan diet. Vitamin B-12 deficiency may go undetected in people who eat a vegan diet. This is because the vegan diet is rich in a vitamin called folate, which may mask deficiency in vitamin B-12 until severe problems occur. For this reason, it’s important for vegans to consider vitamin supplements, vitamin-enriched cereals and fortified soy products.

我们需要维生素B-12来制造红血球和避免贫血,这种维生素几乎都只能在动物身上找到,因此就很难从素食的食谱中摄取足够的量。素食者可能无法察觉自己缺乏维生素B-12,这是因为素食的食谱中有一种叫做叶酸的维生素,可能会掩饰维生素B-12的不足,直到严重的问题出现。因此,素食者必须考虑多吃维生素补充剂,维生素丰富的谷物和强化营养的豆制品。

Vitamin D plays an important role in bone health. Vitamin D is added to cow’s milk, some brands of soy and rice milk (be sure to check the label), and some cereals and margarines. However, if you don’t eat enough fortified foods and have limited sun exposure, you may need supplementation with vitamin D-2 (derived from plants).

维生素D对骨骼的健康有重要的作用,有一些牛奶,一些品牌的大豆和水稻牛奶(一定要检查标签),以及一些谷物和人造黄油里都有添加维生素D在内 。不过,如果你没有吃足够的营养强化食品以及适度地晒太阳,你可能就需要补充(从植物中提取出来的)维生素D-2。

Zinc is an essential component of many enzymes and plays a role in cell division and in formation of proteins. Like iron, zinc is not as easily absorbed from plant sources as it is from animal products. Cheese is a good option if you eat dairy products. Plant sources of zinc include whole grains, soy products, legumes, nuts and wheat germ.

锌是许多酶素的重要组成部分,在细胞分裂和蛋白质的形成过程中起着一定的作用。铁和锌就不容易被植物吸收,因为这是动物身上的产品。如果你有吃乳制品的话,乳酪是一个不错的选择。植物里含锌的有五谷杂粮,豆制品,豆类,坚果和小麦胚芽。

 

Getting started  入门

If you’re not following a vegetarian diet but you’re thinking of trying it, here are some ideas to help you get started:

如果你还没开始素食想要尝试,这里有一些概念供您开始:

Ramp up  逐步提高

Each week increase the number of meatless meals you already enjoy, such as spaghetti with tomato sauce or vegetable stir-fry.

每个星期都增加你已经在享用的无肉素食餐,如意大利麵加番茄酱或炒菜。

Learn to substitute  学会取代

Take favorite recipes and try them without meat. For example, make vegetarian chili by leaving out the ground beef and adding an extra can of black beans. Or make fajitas using extra-firm tofu rather than chicken. You may be surprised to find that many dishes require only simple substitutions.

拿一些自己喜欢的食谱来试,但要去掉肉类。譬如说,做辣椒蔬菜,没有牛肉,加一罐黑豆,或者用更多豆干去做墨西哥饼而不是用鸡肉来做。你会很惊讶地发现,很多菜肴都可以简单地加减替换。

Branch out  分支出去

Scan the Internet for vegetarian menus. Buy or borrow vegetarian cookbooks. Check out ethnic restaurants to sample new vegetarian cuisines. The more variety you bring to your vegetarian diet, the more likely you’ll be to meet all your nutritional needs.

上网找素食菜单,买或借素食烹饪书,上传统餐厅品尝新的素食菜肴,你的素食食谱有越多种类的菜肴,你就能摄取足够的营养来满足自己的营养需求。

 

By Mayo Clinic staff 。Mayo诊所的员工撰文

 

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Source > National Geographic Environment  国家地理杂志环境版

Translated by > BlogHost

Word Count > approx. 1080 words in English

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