Archive

Posts Tagged ‘medical’

Monomelic Amyotrophy

Monomelic Amyotrophy  单肢肌肉萎缩

 

Monomelic amyotrophy (also known as MMA, Hirayama’s disease, Sobue diease or Juvenile nonprogressive amyotrophy) is an untreatable, focal, motor neuron disease that primarily affects young (15 – 25 year-old) males in India and Japan. MMA is marked by insidious onset of muscular atrophy, which stabilizes at a plateau after two to five years from which it neither improves nor worsens. There is no pain or sensory loss associated with MMA. Unlike other lower motor neuron diseases, MMA is not believed to be hereditary and fasciculations (involuntary muscle twitches) are rare.

Monomelic单肌萎缩 (又称MMA甲基丙烯酸甲酯平山郁夫症祖父江症少年无动态肌肉萎缩)是不治之症,这种聚焦的运动神经细胞疾病主要是影响印度和日本的青年男性(15 – 25岁)。甲基丙烯酸甲酯(MMA)的特点是隐匿性的肌肉萎缩发难,在二至五年后到了某一个高点就稳定下来,不再提高也不恶化。与甲基丙烯酸甲酯(MMA)相关的病症没有疼痛或丧失感觉,不像其他的较轻微运动神经元疾病,MMA不是遗传的,肌束颤动(不自主的肌肉抽搐)是罕见的。

EMG tests reveal loss of the nerve supply, or denervation, in the affected limb without conduction block (nerve blockage restricted to a small segment of the nerve). Increased sweating, coldness and cyanosis have been reported for a few patients, indicating involvement of the sympathetic nervous system.

肌电图测试(EMG)显示神经反应的丧失,或去神经化,在受影响的肢体里没有传导阻挡功能(神经阻塞被限制在神经的一小部分)。少数病人出现更多出汗,寒冷和紫绀的症状,表示跟交感神经系统有关。

While MMA will cause weakness and/or wasting in only one limb, EMG and NCV tests often show signs of reinnervation in the unaffected limbs.

虽然MMA会引起无力感亦或只有一肢废弃,肌电图(EMG)和神经传导速度测试(NCV)通常都显示出未受影响的四肢里有神经恢复知觉的迹象。

 

Contents  目录

·      Treatment 治疗处理

·      Prognosis 病症诊断

·      Epidemiology 流行病学

·      External links 外部链接

 

Treatment  治疗处理

There is no cure for MMA. Treatment consists of muscle strengthening exercises and training in hand coordination.

MMA无法治愈,对治办法包括加强肌肉的锻炼以及训练手的协调能力。

 

Prognosis  病症诊断

The symptoms of MMA usually progress slowly for one to two years before reaching a plateau, and then remain stable for many years. Disability is generally slight. Rarely, the weakness progresses to the opposite limb. There is also a slowly progressive variant of MMA known as O’Sullivan-McLeod syndrome, which only affects the small muscles of the hand and forearm and has a slowly progressive course.

MMA的症状通常都进展缓慢,一到两年才能达到一个高点,然后维持多年的稳定。残疾通常也是轻微的。虚弱的部份很少会蔓延到另一肢。但MMA也有一个缓慢渐进的变体,称为(O’Sullivan-McLeod)欧苏利文麦劳尔症候群,只影响了手和前臂的小肌肉,过程缓慢渐进。

 

Epidemiology  流行病学

MMA occurs in males between the ages of 15 and 25. Onset and progression are slow. MMA is seen most frequently in Asia, particularly in Japan and India; it is much less common in North America.

甲基丙烯酸甲酯(MMA)在15和25岁之间的男性身上发生。发病和进展过程都慢。甲基丙烯酸甲酯在亚洲最常见,尤其是在日本和印度,在北美就不普遍。

 

External links  外部链接

monomelic_amyotrophy at NINDS。NINDS的单肢肌肉萎缩

MND Association。MND协会

Overview at Washington University  华盛顿大学的概况

 

Categories  分类

  • Motor neurone disease  运动神经元疾病

—— END ——

 

Source > Wikipedia at en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Monomelic_amyotrophy

Translated by > BlogHost

Word Count > approx. 350 words in English

 

Oneirophrenia

Oneirophrenia  梦呓性精神病

 

Oneirophrenia is a hallucinatory, dream-like state caused by several conditions such as prolonged sleep deprivation, sensory deprivation, or drugs (such as ibogaine). From the Greek words “ὄνειρο” (oneiro, “dream”) and “φρενός” (phrenos, “mind”). It has some of the characteristics of simple schizophrenia, such as a confusional state and clouding of consciousness, but without presenting the dissociative symptoms which are typical of this disorder.

Oneirophrenia梦呓性精神病是一个幻觉,梦境般的状态,由几个条件造成,如长时间失眠,丧失感觉知觉,或药物(如ibogaine伊菠加因这种抗抑郁药)。名词源自于希腊字“ὄνειρο(oneiro,“梦”)和“φρενός”(phrenos,“想”)。它有简单的精神分裂症的一些特点,譬如混乱状态和意识混浊,但没有出现这种疾病典型的游离症状。

Persons affected by oneirophrenia have a feeling of dream-like unreality which, in its extreme form, may progress to delusions and hallucinations. Therefore, it is considered a schizophrenia-like acute form of psychosis which remits in about 60% of cases within a period of two years. It is estimated that 50% or more of schizophrenic patients present oneirophrenia at least once.

受到梦呓性精神病影响的人会感觉到梦境般的不切实际,极端的话会演变成妄想和幻觉。因此,它被认为是类似精神分裂的急性精神失常状态,两年内有大约60%的案例会缓和。估计50%或更多的精神分裂症患者出现过至少一次的梦呓性精神状态。

Oneirophrenic patients are resistant to insulin and when injected with glucose, these patients take 30 to 50% longer to return to normal glycemia. The meaning of this finding is not known, but it has been hypothesized that it may be due to an insulin antagonist present in the blood during psychosis.

梦呓性精神病患者抗拒胰岛素,注射葡萄糖之后,这些患者用30%至50%更长的时间才能恢复到正常的血糖。这一发现的意义还未知,但有人立论假设可能是由于失常期间的血液中有胰岛素抗药剂。

Oneirophrenia was studied in the 1950s by the neurologist and psychiatrist Ladislas J. Meduna (1896-1964), also known as the discoverer of one of the forms of shock therapy, using the drug metrazol.

梦呓性精神病在20世纪50年代由神经学家和精神病学家Ladislas J.Meduna(1896年至1964年)研究发现,是利用药物强心剂发现的其中一种休克疗法。

Psychoanalysts, such as Claudio Naranjo, in the sixties have described the value of ibogaine-induced oneirophrenia for inducing and manipulating free fantasy and dream-like associations in patients under treatment.

六十年代的精神分析学家如Claudio Naranjo描述了抗抑郁药引起的梦呓性精神病的功能,就是促成和操纵接受治疗的患者产生自由幻想和梦幻般的联想。

Although it is still cited in diagnostic manuals of psychiatry, such as DSM-IV and in the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD), oneirophrenia as a separate entity is out of fashion nowadays.

虽然这个功能仍旧在精神病诊断手册中如DSM – IV和疾病与相关健康问题国际统计分类中被引用,梦呓性精神病这个分离出来的科目至今已经不流行。

 

References  参考文献

·      Meduna LJ: Oneirophrenia: The Confusional State. Urbana, University of Illinois Press, 1950.

Meduna LJ:“梦呓性精神病:混乱的状态”。Urbana,University of Illionois伊利诺伊大学出版社,1950年。

·      Naranjo, C. (1969). “Psychotherapeutic possibilities of new fantasy-enhancing drugs.” Clinical Toxicology 2(2):209

Naranjo,C(1969)。“新的幻想增强药物用作心理治疗的可能性”。临床毒理学2(2):209

.      Piotr Popil和Stanley D.Glick:“抗抑郁药用病历”

Piotr Popik and Stanley D. Glick: The Ibogaine Dossier

 

Categories  分类

  • Neurological disorders 神经系统失常
  • Historical and obsolete mental and behavioural disorders 历史性和过期的精神与行为失调

—— END ——

 

Source > Wikipedia at en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oneirophrenia

Translated by > BlogHost

Word Count > approx. 380 words in English

 

Prostate Cancer

Vitamin E tied to higher risk of prostate cancer

维生素E跟患前列腺癌的高风险有關

 

Men taking daily vitamin E were more likely to get prostate cancer than those not taking the dietary supplement, according to a study of close to 35,000 North Americans.

每日服用维生素E的男性比那些不服用膳食补充剂的人更容易患上前列腺癌,这是根据一项有三万五千名北美人参与的研究所发现的。

This means that over a decade, one or two men out of 100 taking vitamin E would be expected to get prostate cancer, said the researchers, whose findings were published in the Journal of the American Medical Association.

研究员说,这就表示了十多年来,每一百位服用维生素E的男性中有一两位会患上前列腺癌,这项研究结果已经在在美国医学协会杂志上发表。

“If you have enough of these vitamins in your system…extra doesn’t help you any, and too much of something like this can be harmful,” said Eric Klein from the Cleveland Clinic, one of the study’s authors, to Reuters Health.

其中一位来自Cleveland诊所的报告书作者之一的Eric Klein对路透社健康版的记者说,“如果你体内的系统已经有足够的维生素,再多一些是一点助益也没有,而且太多的话还可能对你有害。”

The findings come on the heels of a study suggesting that older women who take multivitamins have slightly increased death rates compared to those who don’t.

这项研究也证实了另一项研究的觀點認為,吃多种维生素合成药剂的年长妇女的死亡率比起那些不吃的人来得高。

“There’s a theme here that taking vitamins is not only not helpful but could be harmful” in people who are not deficient in vitamins, Klein added.

Klein说:“这里的主题是说,服用合成维生素药丸对那些不缺维生素的人不但没有帮助而且还可能有害。”

But one researcher who wasn’t part of the new study said he doubted it means vitamin E causes prostate cancer.

但是,有一位不属于这项研究的研究员说,他很怀疑这项研究可以断定维生素E会导致前列腺癌。

“It’s an interesting finding. I’m not sure I believe it,” said Neil Fleshner, from the University of Toronto, adding that the result may have been a chance finding or false positive.

来自多伦多大学的Neil Fleshner说,“这是个有趣的发现,但我不确定要不要相信。”他补充说,这项研究结果还是有可能是个案的假象。

For the study, men in the United States, Canada and Puerto Rico were randomly assigned to one of four groups. Starting between 2001 and 2004, about 9,000 men in each group took daily supplements of 400 international units (IU) of vitamin E, 200 micrograms of selenium, vitamin E and selenium together or a vitamin-free placebo pill.

这项研究随机地把来自美国,加拿大和波多黎各的男性分配到四个小组,从2001到2004年间,每一组都有九千多人每天吞食有四百个国际单位(IU)的维生素E合成药丸,两百微克的

200微克的硒,维生素E和硒一起吃或者没有维生素的安慰剂药丸。

The study was halted in late 2008 when the researchers saw a hint of an increased risk of prostate cancer in the men taking vitamin E. But they kept monitoring men for cancer after they stopped taking the supplements. It turned out that the extra risk became clearer over time.

到了2008年年尾,研究员看到服用维生素E的男性患上前列腺癌的风险有增加的迹象时,这项研究马上终止,但他们继续观察患癌的人在停止服用补充剂后的状况,结果时日一久风险就越明显。

By mid-2011, about seven percent of men who had taken vitamin E only had gotten prostate cancer, compared to six percent of those assigned to placebo pills.

2011年年中,只有大约7%吃过维生素E药丸的人已经得到前列腺癌,而分配到安慰剂药丸的人患癌的有6%。

The researchers did not find an extra risk of prostate cancer in men who took only selenium or vitamin E together with selenium.

研究员并没有发现那些只吃硒或维生素E与硒一起吃的的男性有患上前列腺癌的的额外风险。

Klein and his colleagues said it’s not clear how vitamin E would increase the risk of prostate cancer, and that not all past studies have shown it does any harm to the prostate. Some have even found a lower prostate-cancer risk with vitamin E.

Klein和他的同事们说,目前还不清楚维生素E是如何会增加患前列腺癌的风险,但并不是所有以前的研究都显示对前列腺有害,有些人甚至发现维生素E使到患前列腺癌的风险降低。

He added that the new findings aren’t definite proof that vitamin E causes extra prostate cancers, but that there wasn’t anything else that could explain why men taking the vitamin were more likely to be diagnosed with cancer — for example, they weren’t screened more frequently.

他补充说,这个新发现并没有明确地证明维生素E会产生多余的前列腺癌细胞,但也没有其他理由可以解释为什么服用维生素的男性更容易被诊断出致癌—譬如说,他们并没有接受很多次的断层扫描。

The supplement doses, he added, are much higher than what’s in most over-the-counter multivitamins, which typically contain 15 to 25 IU of vitamin E.

他接着说,补充剂量比起大多数的柜台在卖的多种维生素药丸还高得多,都有15至25 IU的维生素E成份在内。

Fleshner said that either way, vitamin E doesn’t seem to be beneficial for prostate health.

Fleshner说,无论是哪一种吃法,维生素E似乎都对前列腺的健康没有好处。

“There’s certainly no major evidence that vitamin E helps, so why bother?” he said.

他说,“当然也没有主要的证据显示维生素E对健康有益,那又何必管是怎么个吃法?”

While vitamin supplements are known to prevent disease in people who have vitamin deficiencies, so far studies haven’t found much extra benefit in people who already get enough vitamins through their diet. Specifically, vitamin E has not been shown to protect against heart disease, colon cancer or lung cancer.

大家都知道维生素补充剂是用来防止缺维生素的人患病,到目前为止,各项研究并没有发现在食谱中摄取足够维生素的人有得到更多的好处,特别是维生素E并没有显示出能有效防止心脏病,结肠癌或肺癌。

On the other hand, there is a growing body of evidence suggesting supplements may be harmful in high doses.

另一方面,有越来越多的证据在暗示剂量太多可能对身体有害。

“Vitamins are not innocuous substances,” Klein said.

Klein说,“维生素并不是无害的物质。”

 

—— END ——

 

Source > Reuters-路透社,October 12, 2011

Translated by > BlogHost

Word Count > approx. 600 words in English

Osteoporosis

Taking vitamin E linked to osteoporosis: Japanese research

服用维生素E跟骨质疏鬆症的關係:日本人的研究

 

Japanese scientists say they have found a link between consumption of vitamin E and the degenerative bone condition osteoporosis, in a study likely to shed new light on the use of supplements.

日本科学家说,他们已经发现了维生素E的食用跟退化性骨胳状况的骨质疏松症之间的关联,这一项研究将会给这种补充剂的使用提供新的认知。

Researchers found that giving mice increased doses of the vitamin to a level similar to that found in supplements caused the animals’ bones to thin.

研究人员发现,给小老鼠增加跟维生素补充剂一样的数量时会造成动物的骨胳变薄。

The mice developed osteoporosis after eight weeks on the diet, which had levels of vitamin E significantly higher than those found in a mouse’s natural diet, according to the study, published in the journal Nature Medicine.

根据这项在“自然科学”杂志上发表的研究报告,小老鼠维持这种食谱八个星期后导致骨质疏松,维生素E的含量明显高过老鼠的自然食谱。

The team, led by Shu Takeda of Keio University, said vitamin E stimulates the generation of bone-degrading cells, which normally work with bone-forming cells to maintain bone strength.

这个由應慶義塾大学的武田先生领导的研究队伍说, 维生素E刺激了骨胳退化的细胞去生长,这种细胞通常都跟制造骨质的细胞携手合作来维持骨骼的强度。

Osteoporosis is a disease that causes the thinning of bone tissue and loss of bone density over time. It often affects older people, particularly women, who may become more prone to bone fractures.

骨质疏松症是一种疾病,时日久了會导致骨质的骨纤维组织变薄和流失骨质的密度,最常影响到老年人,尤其是妇女,更容易骨折。

Vitamin E is found naturally in various foods including vegetable oil, nuts and some leafy vegetables.

维生素E在各种食物如植物油,坚果和一些绿叶蔬菜之中都是天然的要素。

It is also a popular health supplement as an antioxidant, and is widely believed to enhance health and slow problems related to ageing.

它也是一种流行的保健补充品,有抗氧化的功效,人们普遍认为可以用它来促进健康和减轻跟老化有关的问题。

The study called for greater research into how enhanced levels of vitamin E affect human health.

這項研究呼吁開展更多研究来找出补强的维生素E如何影响人们的健康。

“It is possible that with the volume (of vitamin E) contained in health supplements, bones may become fragile,” Takeda told the Mainichi Shimbun newspaper.

“这是有可能的事,保健品中的维生素E含量可能会使骨骼变脆弱。”武田告诉每日新闻报。

The findings come after researchers found mice that had been genetically modified to be deficient in vitamin E had a high bone density.

这项研究结果是在研究人员把小老鼠的基因修改成缺乏维生素E后,反而拥有更高的骨质密度后发现的现象。

 

—— END ——

 

Source > Agence France-Presse-法新社, March 6, 2012

Translated by > BlogHost

Word Count > approx. 280 words in English

Atrial Fibrillation

April 21, 2012 Leave a comment

The Bare Facts about Atrial Fibrillation

关于房颤的赤裸事实

 

What is Atrial Fibrillation

Atrial Fibrillation is the most common heart rhythm disturbance, causing the heart to beat either too quickly or too slowly. In atrial fibrillation, the atria or the upper chambers of the heart beat too quickly or out of step with the ventricles or lower chambers. This interferes with the heart’s steady heartbeat and thus reduces the efficiency with which blood is pumped in the heart and blood stasis or pooling can occur. Blood that does not flow due to being pooled in the atria then begins to form into clots. These clots can dislodge and travel in the bloodstream, potentially blocking blood vessels in the brain and leading to ischaemic stroke.

什么是房颤?

房颤-心房纤维性颤动是最常见的心脏节律紊乱,导致心脏跳动太快或太慢。房颤是因为心房或上心室心脏跳得太快或者与心室或下心室的节奏脱序。这就干扰了心脏的顺利心跳,从而降低血液泵入心脏的效率,可能会导致血液淤滞或囤积。血液因为囤积在心房不流通就开始形成血块。这些凝块也可以脱落在血液中游行,很有可能阻塞在大脑中的神经线,导致缺血性中风。

 

Is this something that I need to be aware of?

Atrial fibrillation affects 6.3 million people in the US, Japan, Germany, Italy, France, UK and Spain. With an ageing population, this is expected to increase to 7.5 million people by 2017. It is estimated that the prevalence of atrial fibrillation is 1% of the total population and the prevalence of the Atrial fibrillation rises sharply with advancing age. This figure increases to over 10% in people over the age of 80. Nearly one in four people will develop AF in their lifetime, with a slightly higher incidence in men than in women(24% vs 22%, respectively).

这是我需要注意的东西吗?

心房纤维性颤动影响了美国,日本,德国,意大利,法国,英国和西班牙的630万人。随着人口老化,预计到了2017年将增加到750万人。估计房颤的患病率会占总人口的1%,而房颤的患病率也会随着年龄的增长大幅度上升。这个数字在超过80岁的人身上会上升到10%以上。几乎每四个人就有一人会在一生中发展出房颤,男性的发病率略高于女性(分别为24%对22%)。

 

Are you at risk?

The risk of developing atrial fibrillation does increases with age, roughly doubling with each decade. There are, however, other risk factors and these include structural heart disease, valvular disease, hypertension, diabetes, thyroid disease, alcohol and substance misuse, and family history of atrial fibrillation.

你有危险吗?

患上房颤的风险会随着年龄增加,大约每10年就翻一倍。然而,还有其他危险因素,其中包括结构性心脏病,瓣膜病,高血压,糖尿病,甲状腺疾病,酒精和药物滥用和房颤的家族史。

 

How can I recognize the symptoms of atrial fibrillation?

Many patients with atrial fibrillation may not display any symptoms and therefore are unaware of their condition. Patients with atrial fibrillation may experience palpitations, fatigue and weakness, dizziness or fainting, shortness of breath, angina(chest pains).

我该如何辨认出房颤的症状?

许多房颤患者可能不会显示任何症状,因此不知道自己的病情。房颤的患者可能出现心悸,乏力和虚弱,头晕或昏厥,气短,心绞痛(胸痛)。

 

What are the complications associated with atrial fibrillation?

Ischaemic stroke is a major complication associated with atrial fibrillation. This is caused by a piece of blood clot leaving the atria, passing into the circulation and blocking a blood vessel which supplies the brain with oxygen and nutrients.

Persistent atrial fibrillation also increases the risk of heart failure and death. Atrial fibrillation is associated with a reduction in quality of life, including day-to-day functioning and well-being, due to severity of symptoms and complexities of current anticoagulation therapy.

与房颤相关的并发症有哪些?

缺血性中风是一个重大的并发症,与房颤有关联。这是由于一块脱离心房的血块,因为血液循环而阻塞供应大脑氧气与营养的血管。

持续性房颤也增加了心脏衰竭和死亡的风险。由于症状的严重性以及目前抗凝血治疗的复杂程度,房颤会降低生活质量,包括日常的生活起居和便利。

 

Is there an impact of atrial fibrillation on stroke?

People with atrial fibrillation are at higher risk of developing a blood clot which increases the risk of stroke by up to 5 times. Strokes related to atrial fibrillation tend to be more severe than those related to other conditions. The first time a person suffers a stroke, it is often particularly severe. In fact 20% will be fatal and 60% of these will result in disabling. Approximately 50% of people who have a stroke related to atrial fibrillation are estimated to die within a year. Among the survivors with atrial fibrillation, the recurrence of stroke is more frequent and brain damage is more likely to be severe.

房颤是否会影响中风?

患上房颤的人更有可能发展出血液凝块,中风的风险也增加到五倍之多。跟房颤有关的中风往往比其他相关原因更为严重。一个人第一次中风时,通常都很严重。事实上20%会是致命的,60%会导致体障。大约有50%因为房颤而中风的人估计会在一年之内死亡。房颤的幸存者当中,中风复发更频繁,脑损伤会更严重。

 

What are the consequences of stroke?

Stroke is a leading cause of premature death and disability and its consequences can be devastating, both to the affected individual and their family. Every year, 15 million people worldwide suffer a stroke and of these over 5 million are fatal and another 5 million are left permanently disabled. Stroke can result in paralysis, pain, loss of speech and understanding, and affect memory, thought and emotional processes.

中风有哪些后果?

中风是导致早死和残疾的主要原因,其后果可以是灾难性的,对自己和家人的影响来说都一样。每年,全球有1千5百万人受中风所害,超过500万个案例是致命的,还有500万人永久伤残。中风可能导致瘫痪,疼痛,讲话和理解的失准,还影响记忆,思维和情绪。

 

What can I do if I think I have the symptoms of atrial fibrillation?

See your doctor today and get screened for atrial fibrillation. Your doctor will be able to advise you on your treatment options where necessary or call our hotline 12345678 today to find out more about atrial fibrillation.

如果我认为我有房颤的症状,我能做些什么呢?

今天去看医生,检查是否有房颤。您的医生将能够建议您的治疗方案,必要的话,今天就可拨我们的热线12345678询问更多详情。

 

Text provided by Boehringer Ingelheim  文本由Boehringer Ingelheim提供

 

 —— END ——

Source > Medical Advertisement 医疗广告

Translated by > BlogHost

Word Count > approx. 670 words in English

 

Enlarged Prostate

March 7, 2012 Leave a comment

An Enlarged Prostate

Can be treated with GreenLight Laser Therapy

前列腺肿大可以通过绿光雷射療法对治

 

XYZ Hospital is the only hospital in Singapore installed with GreenLight Laser Therapy machine. With more than 160 procedures performed at our hospital, the GreenLight procedure offers freedom from enlarged prostate symptoms.

某某醫院是新加坡唯一的一家安装了绿光(GreenLight)雷射治療機的医院。在我們的醫院進行的160多道工序中,绿光程序移除了前列腺肿大的症狀。

 

Prostate enlargement is inevitable to most men at some time in their lives. When the prostate gland enlarges, it makes it hard for them to urinate.

前列腺腫大在大多數男人的生命中的某个时段是无可避免的。當前列腺腺體增大,小便就会有困难。

 

For years, the best treatment options were medications or various procedures using microwaves, radiofrequency waves or surgical techniques to get ride of excess prostate tissue. The most common surgical procedure, called transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP), typically results in a 2-3 days hospital stay and can lead to considerable bleeding.

多年來,最好的治療方案是藥物或者使用微波,射頻波或手術技巧的各種程序去移除多餘的前列腺肌肉組織。最常見的手術叫做尿道切除前列腺手术(TURP),通常要住院2-3天,也有可能導致大量出血。

 

GreenLight Therapy is different. It is a minimally invasive treatment option that combines the effectiveness of the traditional TURP with fewer side effects. The treatment is suitable for almost all patients with prostate enlargement who require surgery or are not responding to medical (drugs) therapy.

绿光(GreenLight)的治療法就很不一样。这是一種最少侵入性的治療方案,結合了傳統的TURP手術的效用,副作用也少。这种治療办法適用於幾乎所有患有前列腺腫大,需要手術或对药物療程沒有反应的患者。

 

Most patients can return home a few hours after the procedure, and get back to normal, non-strenuous activities within days.

手術後幾個小時,多數患者就可以回家,在幾天內回复正常和不劇烈的活動。

 

The advantages of this treatment include:

這種治療方法的優點有:

  • Rapid urine flow improvement.

 迅速改善尿流。

  • Quick return to normal activities.

 快速恢復正常活動。

  • Virtually bloodless procedure.

 幾乎不流血的過程。

  • Less than 1 per cent reported cases of erectile dysfunction.

 少过1%勃起功能障礙的案例。

  • Less than 24 hours of catheterization in most cases.

 在大多數情況下,导管插入少过24的小時。

  • Outpatient procedure in otherwise healthy patients.

 健康的患者只需門診程序即可。

  • Long-lasting symptom relief.

 長期症狀得到緩解。

 

To find out if you are a candidate for GreenLight Laser Therapy, please call our 24-Hour Helpline at 12345678.

欲知你是否适合绿光(GreenLight)的激光療法,請致電我們的24小時熱線電話号码12345678。

 

—— END ——

 

Source > Advertisement

Translated by > BlogHost

Word Count > approx. 250 words in English

Dermatology 皮肤科

February 29, 2012 Leave a comment

Dermatology  皮肤科

 

Dermatology is the branch of medicine dealing with the skin and its diseases, a unique specialty with both medical and surgical aspects. A dermatologist takes care of diseases, in the widest sense, and some cosmetic problems of the skin, scalp, hair, and nails.

皮肤科是处理与皮肤及其疾病的医学分支,有医疗和手术方面的专门性。皮肤科医生管疾病,广义的说,也包括一些表皮的问题如皮肤,头皮,头发和指甲的。

 

Contents  分类

1.  Etymology  词源

2.History  历史

3.Training  训练

4.Subspecialties  分科

4.1   Cosmetic dermatology  表层皮肤学

4.2   Dermatopathology  皮肤病理学

4.3   Immunodermatology  皮肤免疫学

4.4   Mohs surgery  莫氏手术

4.5   Pediatric dermatology  小儿皮肤科

4.6   Teledermatology  皮肤传媒学

5. Therapies  疗法

6. See also  另见

7. Notes  注

8.External links  外部链接

 

Etymology  词源

Coined in English 1819, the word dermatology originated in the form of the words dermologie (in French, 1764) and, a little later, dermatologia (in Latin, 1777). The term derives from the Greek “δέρματος” (dermatos), genitive of “δέρμα” (derma), “skin” (from “δέρω” – dero, “to flay”) + “-logy, “the study of”, a suffix derived from “λόγος” (logos), amongst others meaning “speech, oration, discourse, quote, study, calculation, reason”, in turn from “λέγω” – lego, “to say”, “to speak”.

1819年英语的造词,皮肤科这个字源于dermologie(1764年法国),之后演变成dermatologia(1777年的拉丁文)。这个名词源于希腊的“δέρματος” (dermatos),“δέρμα”(真皮),“皮肤 –(“δέρω”-dero,“去皮“-logy”)的研究“,后缀源自于”λόγος“(标识),其他意义有,”讲话,致辞,话语,语录,研究,计算,理论“,也源自于“λέγω”-标志“,说或说话“。

 

History  历史

Readily visible alterations of the skin surface have been recognized since the dawn of history, with some being treated, and some not. In 1801 the first great school of dermatology became a reality at the famous Hôpital Saint-Louis in Paris, while the first textbooks (Willan’s, 1798–1808) and atlases (Alibert’s, 1806–1814) appeared in print during the same period of time. In 1952, Dermatology was greatly advanced by Dr. Norman Orentreich’s pioneering work in hair transplantation.

有史以来,可见的表皮改造就已经受到承认,有些可以治疗,有些治不好。1801年,巴黎著名的医院Hopital Saint-Louis圣路易斯皮肤科首度成立了皮肤科学院,而第一本教科书(Willan著,1798至1808年)和地图集(Alibert著,1806至1814年),在同时期内打印出版。1952年,皮肤学在Norman Orentreich博士那个开创性的头发移植技术下获得长足的发展。

 

Training  訓練

After earning a medical degree (M.D. or D.O.), the length of training in the United States for a general dermatologist to be eligible for Board Certification by the American Academy of Dermatology, is a total of four years. This training consists of an initial medical or surgical intern year followed by a three-year dermatology residency. Following this training, one- or two- year post-residency fellowships are available in immunodermatology, phototherapy, laser medicine, Mohs micrographic surgery, cosmetic surgery or dermatopathology. For the past several years, dermatology residency positions in the United States have been one of the most competitive to obtain.

在获得医学学位(MD或DO)后,美国一般皮肤科医生的培训期是四年。训练包括初步的医疗或手术实习生课程以及为期三年的皮肤科駐院医师期。

駐院期过后,还有一或两年的院士身份供选修,专业领域有免疫学,光线疗法,激光医疗,Mohs莫式显微外科手术,美容手术或皮肤病理学。过去几年,美国的皮肤科駐院医师身份是其中一个竞争最激烈的职位。

 

Subspecialties  分科

Cosmetic dermatology  表层皮肤学

Dermatologists have been leaders in the field of cosmetic surgery. Some dermatologists complete fellowships in surgical dermatology. Many are trained in their residency on the use of botox, fillers, and laser surgery. Some dermatologists perform cosmetic procedures including liposuction, blepharoplasty, and face lifts. Most dermatologists limit their cosmetic practice to minimally invasive procedures. Despite an absence of formal guidelines from the American Board of Dermatology, many cosmetic fellowships are offered in both surgery and laser medicine.

皮肤科医师一直都是整容手术领域的佼佼者。一些皮肤科医生完成了整个皮肤科手术的院士训练。许多人都在駐院受训时学习使用肉毒杆菌,填充剂和激光手术。一些皮肤科医生执行整容手术,如抽脂,消眼袋和拉皮.大多数皮肤科医生的整容工作只限于轻微侵入性的步骤。尽管没有美国皮肤病委员会的正式指引,许多皮层整容院士都可以选修手术以及激光医学。

Dermatopathology  皮肤病理学

A dermatolopathologist is a pathologist or dermatologist who specializes in the pathology of the skin. This field is shared by dermatologists and pathologists. Usually a dermatologist or pathologist will complete one year of dermatopathology fellowship. This usually includes six months of general pathology, and six months of dermatopathology. Alumni of both specialties can qualify as dermatopathologists. At the completion of a standard residency in dermatology, many dermatologists are also competent at dermatopathology. Some dermatopathologists qualify to sit for their examinations by completing a residency in dermatology and one in pathology.

皮肤病理学家是一个专于皮肤病理的病理学医生或皮肤医生,这个领域由皮肤科专家和病理专家共享。一般上,皮肤科专家或病理学专家会在一年内完成皮肤病理学院士的训练。通常包括6个月的一般病理学和6个月的皮肤学训练。两个专科的校友都有资格成为皮肤病理科专家。在完成标准的駐院皮肤学训练之后,许多皮肤科专家也是合格的皮肤病理学专家。一些皮肤病理学专家在完成駐院的皮肤学与病理学的实习之后,就有资格应考。

Immunodermatology  皮肤免疫学

This field specializes in the treatment of immune-mediated skin diseases such as lupus, bullous pemphigoid, pemphigus vulgaris, and other immune-mediated skin disorders. Specialists in this field often run their own immunopathology labs.

这个领域专门治疗免疫力传导的皮肤疾病,如红斑狼疮,大疱性类天疱疮 ,寻常型天疱疮和其他免疫性介导的皮肤失衡状况。这方面的专家通常都会经营自己的免疫病理学医室。

Mohs Surgery  莫氏手术

The dermatologic subspecialty called Mohs surgery focuses on the excision of skin cancers using a tissue-sparing technique that allows intraoperative assessment of 100% of the peripheral and deep tumor margins developed in the 1930s by Dr. Frederic E. Mohs. The procedure is defined as a type of CCPDMA processing. Physicians trained in this technique must be comfortable with both pathology and surgery, and dermatologists receive extensive training in both during their residency. Physicians who perform Mohs surgery can receive training in this specialized technique during their dermatology residency, but many will seek additional training either through preceptorships to join the American Society for Mohs Surgery or through formal one- to two-year Mohs surgery fellowship training programs administered by the American College of Mohs Surgery.

这个被称为莫氏手术的皮肤病分科着重于切除皮肤癌,使用一个纤维组织保留的技术,允许外科手术进行时百分百评估周边和深层的皮肤癌幅度,这个技术是30年代的Frederic E.Mohs莫氏医生发展出来的。这个过程被定义为一种CCPDMA的处理法。接受这种技术培训的医生必须能够同时掌握病理和手术,而皮肤科医生也在駐院期间接受这两种学科全面的培训。执行莫氏手术的医生可以在駐院实习皮肤科期间接受这种技术的训练,但是很多人会通过指导传授方式寻求额外的培训,或通过美国莫氏手术学院提供的一到两年正式的莫氏手术院士训练课程,以便加入美国的莫氏协会。

Pediatric dermatology  小儿皮肤科

Physicians can qualify for this specialization by completing both a pediatric residency and a dermatology residency. Or they might elect to complete a post-residency fellowship. This field encompasses the complex diseases of the neonates, hereditary skin diseases or genodermatoses, and the many difficulties of working with the pediatric population.

完成駐院儿科医师和駐院皮肤科医师的医生就有资格接受这种专业训练。要不然他们可能会选择在駐院医师以后成为院士。这个领域包括了新生儿的复杂疾病,遗传性皮肤疾病或遗传皮肤病, 以及应付儿童的许多困难。

Teledermatology  皮肤传媒学

Teledermatology is a form of dermatology where telecommunication technologies are used to exchange medical information via all kinds of media (audio, visual and also data communication, but typically photos of dermatologic conditions) usually made by non-dermatologists for evaluation off-site by dermatologists). This subspecialty deals with options to view skin conditions over a large distance to provide knowledge exchange, to establish second-opinion services for experts or to use this for follow-up of individuals with chronic skin conditions.

皮肤传媒学是皮肤科的一种表达形式,通过电信技术利用各种媒介(音频,视讯和数据通信,最典型的是使用皮肤病照片)来交换医疗信息,信息通常都由非皮肤科专家提供给皮肤科专家作场外鉴定。这个分科处理各种远距离查看皮肤状况交流知识的媒介选项,好让专家们提供多一个意见的服务,或者当作慢性皮肤病人的后续观察方式。

 

Therapies  疗法

Therapies provided by dermatologists include, but not restricted to:

皮肤科专家提供的疗法包括但还不限于以下各项:

  •  Cosmetic filler injections

美容填充注射剂。

  •  Hair removal with laser or other modalities

用激光或其他方式脱毛。

  •  Hair transplantation – a cosmetic procedure practiced by many dermatologists.

  毛发移植–一个有许多皮肤科医师执业的美容程序。

  •  Intralesional treatment – with steroid or chemotherapy.

   瘤内治疗–类固醇或化疗。

  • Laser therapy – for both the management of birth marks, skin disorders (like vitiligo), Tattoo removal , and cosmetic resurfacing and rejuvenation.

  激光治疗–处理胎记,皮肤失常(如白癜风),洗眉和表层的磨平与更新。

  • Photodynamic therapy – for the treatment of skin cancer and precancerous growths.

  光线动力疗法–治疗皮肤癌和癌细胞增长前的问题。

  • Phototherapy – including the use of narrowband UVB, broadband UVB, psoralen and UVB.

  光疗–包括使用的窄带UVB,宽带UVB,补骨脂和UVB。

  • Tattoo removal with laser.

  用激光去除纹身

  • Tumescent liposuction – liposuction was invented by a gynecologist. A dermatologist (Dr. Jeffrey A. Klein) adapted the procedure to local infusion of dilute anesthetic called tumescent liposuction. This method is now widely practiced by dermatologists, plastic surgeons and gynecologists.

肿胀吸脂–吸脂手术是由妇科医生发明的。皮肤科医生(Jeffrey A.Klein杰弗  里A ·克莱因博士)使用局部稀麻醉药灌注的过程,称为肿胀吸脂。这个方法现在已经广泛被皮肤科医生,整形外科医生和妇科医生采用。

  • Cryosurgery – for the treatment of warts, skin cancers, and other dermatosis.

   冷冻手术–治疗疣,皮肤癌和其他皮肤病。

  • Radiation therapy – although rarely practiced by dermatologists, many dermatologist continue to provide radiation therapy in their office.

放射性治疗–虽然很少皮肤科医师在用,许多皮肤科医生还是在他们的办公室继续提供放射性治疗。

  • Vitiligo surgery – Including procedures like autologous melanocyte transplant, suction blister grafting and punch grafting.

  白癜风手术–程序包括自体黑色素细胞移植,嫁接和打孔嫁接吸疱。

  • Allergy testing – ‘Patch testing’ for contact dermatitis.

   过敏测试– “补丁测试”接触性皮炎。

  • Systemic therapies – including antibiotics, immunomodulators, and novel injectable products.

  全身治疗 — 包括抗生素,免疫调节剂,以及新颖的注射产品。

  • Topical therapies – dermatologists have the best understanding of the numerous products and compounds used topically in medicine.

  局部治疗 – 皮肤科医师最能理解众多医疗产品和化合物的用途。

  • Most dermatologic pharmacology can be categorized based on the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System, specifically the ATC code D.

大多数皮肤病药剂学可分为解剖治疗化学分类系统,特别是ATC代码D的依据。

 

See also  另见

  • History of dermatology   皮肤科的历史
  • List of dermatologists   皮肤科医生的名单
  • List of cutaneous conditions   侵犯皮肤条件的名单
  • Skin disease   皮肤病
  • Skin lesion   皮肤损伤

External links  外部链接

  • American History of Dermatology Society  美国皮肤病学会的历史
  • French Society for the History of Dermatology  法国社会历史的皮肤科
  • American Academy of Dermatology  美国科学院皮肤病
  • Society of Investigative Dermatology  侦查皮肤科学协会

 

Categories  分类

  • Dermatology   皮肤科
  • Medical specialties   医学专科
  • Subjects taught in medical school   医学院教导的科目
  • Greek loanwords   希腊外来词

 

Medical Specialties and Subspecialties   医学专科和分科

Surgery  手术

  • Cardiac surgery   心脏手术
  • Cardiothoracic surgery   心胸手术
  • Colorectal surgery   结肠直肠手术
  • General surgery   一般手术
  • Neurosurgery   神经手术
  • Ophthalmology   眼科
  • Oral and maxillofacial surgery   口腔上颌面手术
  • Orthopedic surgery   矫形骨科手术
  • Hand surgery   手部手术
  • Otolaryngology (ENT)   耳鼻喉科(耳鼻喉)
  • Pediatric surgery   小儿手术
  • Plastic surgery   整形手术
  • Surgical oncology   外科肿瘤学
  • Thoracic surgery   胸腔手术
  • Transplant surgery   移植手术
  • Trauma surgery   外伤手术
  • Urology   泌尿科
  • Vascular surgery   血管手术

Internal medicine  内科

  • Allergy / Immunology   过敏/免疫学
  • Andrology   男性生殖器病学
  • Angiology (Vascular Medicine)   血管学(脉管医疗)
  • Cardiology   心脏病学
  • Endocrinology   内分泌科
  • Gastroenterology   肠胃病学
  • Hepatology   肝脏病学
  • Geriatrics   老年病科
  • Gynaecology   妇科
  • Hematology   血液科
  • Infectious disease   传染性疾病
  • Nephrology   肾脏病学
  • Oncology   肿瘤病学
  • Pulmonology   肺病学
  • Rheumatology   风湿病学

Diagnostic  诊断

  •  Healthcare sciences   保健科学

   Clinical chemistry   临床化学

   Clinical immunology  临床免疫学

   Cytopathology   细胞病理学

   Medical microbiology  医疗微生物学

   Transfusion medicine  输血医学

  •  Radiology   放射线学

   Interventional radiology, (Nuclear medicine)   介入放射学(核医学)

  •  Pathology (Anatomical, Clinical)   病理学(解剖,临床)
  •  Clinical neurophysiology  临床神经生理学

Other specialties  其他专科

  • Addiction medicine  成瘾药物
  • Adolescent medicine  青少年医学
  • Anesthesiology   麻醉科
  • Dermatology  皮肤科
  • Disaster medicine  灾难医疗
  • Emergency medicine   急诊医疗
  • Family medicine   家庭医疗
  • General practice   一般行医实践
  • Gynaecology   妇科
  • Hospital medicine   医院用药
  • Intensive-care medicine   加护医疗
  • Medical genetics   学遗传学
  • Neurology   神经内科
  • Obstetrics   妇产科
  • Occupational medicine   职业医学
  • Pain management (Algiatry)   疼痛管理(Algiatry)
  • Palliative care   安抚医疗
  • Pediatrics (Neonatology)  儿科(新生儿科)
  • Physical medicine and rehabilitation (Physiatry)   物理医学与康复(康复科/理疗学)
  • Preventive medicine   预防医疗
  • Psychiatry   精神病学
  • Radiation oncology   放射肿瘤学
  • Reproductive medicine (Reproductive endocrinology and infertility, Reproductive surgery)   生殖医学(生殖内分泌学和不孕症,生殖手术)
  • Sexual medicine   性医学
  • Sleep medicine   睡眠医学
  • Sports medicine   运动医学
  • Transplantation medicine   移植医学
  • Tropical medicine (Travel medicine)   热带医学(旅行医学)
  • Urogynecology   妇科泌尿学

Others其他

  • Physician   医生

  MD   医学博士

  MBBS   内外全科医学士

  DO   骨科医生

  • Dentistry   牙科
  • Podiatry   足科
  • Veterinary medicine   兽医学
  • History of medicine   医学史
  • Medical education   医学教育
  • Medical school   医学院
  • Personalized medicine   个性化医疗

—— END ——

 

Source > Wikipedia at en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dermatology

Translated by > BlogHost — hkTan

Word Count > approx.1550 words in English

 

%d bloggers like this: