Monomelic Amyotrophy 单肢肌肉萎缩
Monomelic amyotrophy (also known as MMA, Hirayama’s disease, Sobue diease or Juvenile nonprogressive amyotrophy) is an untreatable, focal, motor neuron disease that primarily affects young (15 – 25 year-old) males in India and Japan. MMA is marked by insidious onset of muscular atrophy, which stabilizes at a plateau after two to five years from which it neither improves nor worsens. There is no pain or sensory loss associated with MMA. Unlike other lower motor neuron diseases, MMA is not believed to be hereditary and fasciculations (involuntary muscle twitches) are rare.
Monomelic单肌萎缩 (又称MMA甲基丙烯酸甲酯 ， 平山郁夫症 ， 祖父江症或少年无动态肌肉萎缩)是不治之症，这种聚焦的运动神经细胞疾病主要是影响印度和日本的青年男性(15 – 25岁)。甲基丙烯酸甲酯(MMA)的特点是隐匿性的肌肉萎缩发难，在二至五年后到了某一个高点就稳定下来，不再提高也不恶化。与甲基丙烯酸甲酯(MMA)相关的病症没有疼痛或丧失感觉，不像其他的较轻微运动神经元疾病，MMA不是遗传的，肌束颤动(不自主的肌肉抽搐)是罕见的。
EMG tests reveal loss of the nerve supply, or denervation, in the affected limb without conduction block (nerve blockage restricted to a small segment of the nerve). Increased sweating, coldness and cyanosis have been reported for a few patients, indicating involvement of the sympathetic nervous system.
While MMA will cause weakness and/or wasting in only one limb, EMG and NCV tests often show signs of reinnervation in the unaffected limbs.
· Treatment 治疗处理
· Prognosis 病症诊断
· Epidemiology 流行病学
· External links 外部链接
There is no cure for MMA. Treatment consists of muscle strengthening exercises and training in hand coordination.
The symptoms of MMA usually progress slowly for one to two years before reaching a plateau, and then remain stable for many years. Disability is generally slight. Rarely, the weakness progresses to the opposite limb. There is also a slowly progressive variant of MMA known as O’Sullivan-McLeod syndrome, which only affects the small muscles of the hand and forearm and has a slowly progressive course.
MMA occurs in males between the ages of 15 and 25. Onset and progression are slow. MMA is seen most frequently in Asia, particularly in Japan and India; it is much less common in North America.
External links 外部链接
monomelic_amyotrophy at NINDS。NINDS的单肢肌肉萎缩
Overview at Washington University 华盛顿大学的概况
- Motor neurone disease 运动神经元疾病
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Source > Wikipedia at en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Monomelic_amyotrophy
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Word Count > approx. 350 words in English
Oneirophrenia is a hallucinatory, dream-like state caused by several conditions such as prolonged sleep deprivation, sensory deprivation, or drugs (such as ibogaine). From the Greek words “ὄνειρο” (oneiro, “dream”) and “φρενός” (phrenos, “mind”). It has some of the characteristics of simple schizophrenia, such as a confusional state and clouding of consciousness, but without presenting the dissociative symptoms which are typical of this disorder.
Persons affected by oneirophrenia have a feeling of dream-like unreality which, in its extreme form, may progress to delusions and hallucinations. Therefore, it is considered a schizophrenia-like acute form of psychosis which remits in about 60% of cases within a period of two years. It is estimated that 50% or more of schizophrenic patients present oneirophrenia at least once.
Oneirophrenic patients are resistant to insulin and when injected with glucose, these patients take 30 to 50% longer to return to normal glycemia. The meaning of this finding is not known, but it has been hypothesized that it may be due to an insulin antagonist present in the blood during psychosis.
Oneirophrenia was studied in the 1950s by the neurologist and psychiatrist Ladislas J. Meduna (1896-1964), also known as the discoverer of one of the forms of shock therapy, using the drug metrazol.
Psychoanalysts, such as Claudio Naranjo, in the sixties have described the value of ibogaine-induced oneirophrenia for inducing and manipulating free fantasy and dream-like associations in patients under treatment.
Although it is still cited in diagnostic manuals of psychiatry, such as DSM-IV and in the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD), oneirophrenia as a separate entity is out of fashion nowadays.
虽然这个功能仍旧在精神病诊断手册中如DSM – IV和疾病与相关健康问题国际统计分类中被引用，梦呓性精神病这个分离出来的科目至今已经不流行。
· Meduna LJ: Oneirophrenia: The Confusional State. Urbana, University of Illinois Press, 1950.
Meduna LJ：“梦呓性精神病：混乱的状态”。Urbana，University of Illionois伊利诺伊大学出版社，1950年。
· Naranjo, C. (1969). “Psychotherapeutic possibilities of new fantasy-enhancing drugs.” Clinical Toxicology 2(2):209
. Piotr Popil和Stanley D.Glick：“抗抑郁药用病历”
Piotr Popik and Stanley D. Glick: The Ibogaine Dossier
- Neurological disorders 神经系统失常
- Historical and obsolete mental and behavioural disorders 历史性和过期的精神与行为失调
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Source > Wikipedia at en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oneirophrenia
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Word Count > approx. 380 words in English
Vitamin E tied to higher risk of prostate cancer
Men taking daily vitamin E were more likely to get prostate cancer than those not taking the dietary supplement, according to a study of close to 35,000 North Americans.
This means that over a decade, one or two men out of 100 taking vitamin E would be expected to get prostate cancer, said the researchers, whose findings were published in the Journal of the American Medical Association.
“If you have enough of these vitamins in your system…extra doesn’t help you any, and too much of something like this can be harmful,” said Eric Klein from the Cleveland Clinic, one of the study’s authors, to Reuters Health.
The findings come on the heels of a study suggesting that older women who take multivitamins have slightly increased death rates compared to those who don’t.
“There’s a theme here that taking vitamins is not only not helpful but could be harmful” in people who are not deficient in vitamins, Klein added.
But one researcher who wasn’t part of the new study said he doubted it means vitamin E causes prostate cancer.
“It’s an interesting finding. I’m not sure I believe it,” said Neil Fleshner, from the University of Toronto, adding that the result may have been a chance finding or false positive.
For the study, men in the United States, Canada and Puerto Rico were randomly assigned to one of four groups. Starting between 2001 and 2004, about 9,000 men in each group took daily supplements of 400 international units (IU) of vitamin E, 200 micrograms of selenium, vitamin E and selenium together or a vitamin-free placebo pill.
The study was halted in late 2008 when the researchers saw a hint of an increased risk of prostate cancer in the men taking vitamin E. But they kept monitoring men for cancer after they stopped taking the supplements. It turned out that the extra risk became clearer over time.
By mid-2011, about seven percent of men who had taken vitamin E only had gotten prostate cancer, compared to six percent of those assigned to placebo pills.
The researchers did not find an extra risk of prostate cancer in men who took only selenium or vitamin E together with selenium.
Klein and his colleagues said it’s not clear how vitamin E would increase the risk of prostate cancer, and that not all past studies have shown it does any harm to the prostate. Some have even found a lower prostate-cancer risk with vitamin E.
He added that the new findings aren’t definite proof that vitamin E causes extra prostate cancers, but that there wasn’t anything else that could explain why men taking the vitamin were more likely to be diagnosed with cancer — for example, they weren’t screened more frequently.
The supplement doses, he added, are much higher than what’s in most over-the-counter multivitamins, which typically contain 15 to 25 IU of vitamin E.
Fleshner said that either way, vitamin E doesn’t seem to be beneficial for prostate health.
“There’s certainly no major evidence that vitamin E helps, so why bother?” he said.
While vitamin supplements are known to prevent disease in people who have vitamin deficiencies, so far studies haven’t found much extra benefit in people who already get enough vitamins through their diet. Specifically, vitamin E has not been shown to protect against heart disease, colon cancer or lung cancer.
On the other hand, there is a growing body of evidence suggesting supplements may be harmful in high doses.
“Vitamins are not innocuous substances,” Klein said.
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Source > Reuters-路透社，October 12, 2011
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Word Count > approx. 600 words in English
Taking vitamin E linked to osteoporosis: Japanese research
Japanese scientists say they have found a link between consumption of vitamin E and the degenerative bone condition osteoporosis, in a study likely to shed new light on the use of supplements.
Researchers found that giving mice increased doses of the vitamin to a level similar to that found in supplements caused the animals’ bones to thin.
The mice developed osteoporosis after eight weeks on the diet, which had levels of vitamin E significantly higher than those found in a mouse’s natural diet, according to the study, published in the journal Nature Medicine.
The team, led by Shu Takeda of Keio University, said vitamin E stimulates the generation of bone-degrading cells, which normally work with bone-forming cells to maintain bone strength.
Osteoporosis is a disease that causes the thinning of bone tissue and loss of bone density over time. It often affects older people, particularly women, who may become more prone to bone fractures.
Vitamin E is found naturally in various foods including vegetable oil, nuts and some leafy vegetables.
It is also a popular health supplement as an antioxidant, and is widely believed to enhance health and slow problems related to ageing.
The study called for greater research into how enhanced levels of vitamin E affect human health.
“It is possible that with the volume (of vitamin E) contained in health supplements, bones may become fragile,” Takeda told the Mainichi Shimbun newspaper.
The findings come after researchers found mice that had been genetically modified to be deficient in vitamin E had a high bone density.
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Source > Agence France-Presse-法新社, March 6, 2012
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Word Count > approx. 280 words in English
The Bare Facts about Atrial Fibrillation
What is Atrial Fibrillation
Atrial Fibrillation is the most common heart rhythm disturbance, causing the heart to beat either too quickly or too slowly. In atrial fibrillation, the atria or the upper chambers of the heart beat too quickly or out of step with the ventricles or lower chambers. This interferes with the heart’s steady heartbeat and thus reduces the efficiency with which blood is pumped in the heart and blood stasis or pooling can occur. Blood that does not flow due to being pooled in the atria then begins to form into clots. These clots can dislodge and travel in the bloodstream, potentially blocking blood vessels in the brain and leading to ischaemic stroke.
Is this something that I need to be aware of?
Atrial fibrillation affects 6.3 million people in the US, Japan, Germany, Italy, France, UK and Spain. With an ageing population, this is expected to increase to 7.5 million people by 2017. It is estimated that the prevalence of atrial fibrillation is 1% of the total population and the prevalence of the Atrial fibrillation rises sharply with advancing age. This figure increases to over 10% in people over the age of 80. Nearly one in four people will develop AF in their lifetime, with a slightly higher incidence in men than in women(24% vs 22%, respectively).
Are you at risk?
The risk of developing atrial fibrillation does increases with age, roughly doubling with each decade. There are, however, other risk factors and these include structural heart disease, valvular disease, hypertension, diabetes, thyroid disease, alcohol and substance misuse, and family history of atrial fibrillation.
How can I recognize the symptoms of atrial fibrillation?
Many patients with atrial fibrillation may not display any symptoms and therefore are unaware of their condition. Patients with atrial fibrillation may experience palpitations, fatigue and weakness, dizziness or fainting, shortness of breath, angina(chest pains).
What are the complications associated with atrial fibrillation?
Ischaemic stroke is a major complication associated with atrial fibrillation. This is caused by a piece of blood clot leaving the atria, passing into the circulation and blocking a blood vessel which supplies the brain with oxygen and nutrients.
Persistent atrial fibrillation also increases the risk of heart failure and death. Atrial fibrillation is associated with a reduction in quality of life, including day-to-day functioning and well-being, due to severity of symptoms and complexities of current anticoagulation therapy.
Is there an impact of atrial fibrillation on stroke?
People with atrial fibrillation are at higher risk of developing a blood clot which increases the risk of stroke by up to 5 times. Strokes related to atrial fibrillation tend to be more severe than those related to other conditions. The first time a person suffers a stroke, it is often particularly severe. In fact 20% will be fatal and 60% of these will result in disabling. Approximately 50% of people who have a stroke related to atrial fibrillation are estimated to die within a year. Among the survivors with atrial fibrillation, the recurrence of stroke is more frequent and brain damage is more likely to be severe.
What are the consequences of stroke?
Stroke is a leading cause of premature death and disability and its consequences can be devastating, both to the affected individual and their family. Every year, 15 million people worldwide suffer a stroke and of these over 5 million are fatal and another 5 million are left permanently disabled. Stroke can result in paralysis, pain, loss of speech and understanding, and affect memory, thought and emotional processes.
What can I do if I think I have the symptoms of atrial fibrillation?
See your doctor today and get screened for atrial fibrillation. Your doctor will be able to advise you on your treatment options where necessary or call our hotline 12345678 today to find out more about atrial fibrillation.
Text provided by Boehringer Ingelheim 文本由Boehringer Ingelheim提供
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Source > Medical Advertisement 医疗广告
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Word Count > approx. 670 words in English
An Enlarged Prostate
Can be treated with GreenLight Laser Therapy
XYZ Hospital is the only hospital in Singapore installed with GreenLight Laser Therapy machine. With more than 160 procedures performed at our hospital, the GreenLight procedure offers freedom from enlarged prostate symptoms.
Prostate enlargement is inevitable to most men at some time in their lives. When the prostate gland enlarges, it makes it hard for them to urinate.
For years, the best treatment options were medications or various procedures using microwaves, radiofrequency waves or surgical techniques to get ride of excess prostate tissue. The most common surgical procedure, called transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP), typically results in a 2-3 days hospital stay and can lead to considerable bleeding.
GreenLight Therapy is different. It is a minimally invasive treatment option that combines the effectiveness of the traditional TURP with fewer side effects. The treatment is suitable for almost all patients with prostate enlargement who require surgery or are not responding to medical (drugs) therapy.
Most patients can return home a few hours after the procedure, and get back to normal, non-strenuous activities within days.
The advantages of this treatment include:
- Rapid urine flow improvement.
- Quick return to normal activities.
- Virtually bloodless procedure.
- Less than 1 per cent reported cases of erectile dysfunction.
- Less than 24 hours of catheterization in most cases.
- Outpatient procedure in otherwise healthy patients.
- Long-lasting symptom relief.
To find out if you are a candidate for GreenLight Laser Therapy, please call our 24-Hour Helpline at 12345678.
—— END ——
Source > Advertisement
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Word Count > approx. 250 words in English
Dermatology is the branch of medicine dealing with the skin and its diseases, a unique specialty with both medical and surgical aspects. A dermatologist takes care of diseases, in the widest sense, and some cosmetic problems of the skin, scalp, hair, and nails.
1. Etymology 词源
4.1 Cosmetic dermatology 表层皮肤学
4.2 Dermatopathology 皮肤病理学
4.3 Immunodermatology 皮肤免疫学
4.4 Mohs surgery 莫氏手术
4.5 Pediatric dermatology 小儿皮肤科
4.6 Teledermatology 皮肤传媒学
5． Therapies 疗法
6． See also 另见
7． Notes 注
8．External links 外部链接
Coined in English 1819, the word dermatology originated in the form of the words dermologie (in French, 1764) and, a little later, dermatologia (in Latin, 1777). The term derives from the Greek “δέρματος” (dermatos), genitive of “δέρμα” (derma), “skin” (from “δέρω” – dero, “to flay”) + “-logy, “the study of”, a suffix derived from “λόγος” (logos), amongst others meaning “speech, oration, discourse, quote, study, calculation, reason”, in turn from “λέγω” – lego, “to say”, “to speak”.
1819年英语的造词，皮肤科这个字源于dermologie(1764年法国)，之后演变成dermatologia(1777年的拉丁文)。这个名词源于希腊的“δέρματος” (dermatos)，“δέρμα”(真皮)，“皮肤 –(“δέρω”-dero，“去皮“-logy”)的研究“，后缀源自于”λόγος“(标识)，其他意义有，”讲话，致辞，话语，语录，研究，计算，理论“，也源自于“λέγω”-标志“，说或说话“。
Readily visible alterations of the skin surface have been recognized since the dawn of history, with some being treated, and some not. In 1801 the first great school of dermatology became a reality at the famous Hôpital Saint-Louis in Paris, while the first textbooks (Willan’s, 1798–1808) and atlases (Alibert’s, 1806–1814) appeared in print during the same period of time. In 1952, Dermatology was greatly advanced by Dr. Norman Orentreich’s pioneering work in hair transplantation.
有史以来，可见的表皮改造就已经受到承认，有些可以治疗，有些治不好。1801年，巴黎著名的医院Hopital Saint-Louis圣路易斯皮肤科首度成立了皮肤科学院，而第一本教科书(Willan著，1798至1808年)和地图集(Alibert著，1806至1814年)，在同时期内打印出版。1952年，皮肤学在Norman Orentreich博士那个开创性的头发移植技术下获得长足的发展。
After earning a medical degree (M.D. or D.O.), the length of training in the United States for a general dermatologist to be eligible for Board Certification by the American Academy of Dermatology, is a total of four years. This training consists of an initial medical or surgical intern year followed by a three-year dermatology residency. Following this training, one- or two- year post-residency fellowships are available in immunodermatology, phototherapy, laser medicine, Mohs micrographic surgery, cosmetic surgery or dermatopathology. For the past several years, dermatology residency positions in the United States have been one of the most competitive to obtain.
Cosmetic dermatology 表层皮肤学
Dermatologists have been leaders in the field of cosmetic surgery. Some dermatologists complete fellowships in surgical dermatology. Many are trained in their residency on the use of botox, fillers, and laser surgery. Some dermatologists perform cosmetic procedures including liposuction, blepharoplasty, and face lifts. Most dermatologists limit their cosmetic practice to minimally invasive procedures. Despite an absence of formal guidelines from the American Board of Dermatology, many cosmetic fellowships are offered in both surgery and laser medicine.
A dermatolopathologist is a pathologist or dermatologist who specializes in the pathology of the skin. This field is shared by dermatologists and pathologists. Usually a dermatologist or pathologist will complete one year of dermatopathology fellowship. This usually includes six months of general pathology, and six months of dermatopathology. Alumni of both specialties can qualify as dermatopathologists. At the completion of a standard residency in dermatology, many dermatologists are also competent at dermatopathology. Some dermatopathologists qualify to sit for their examinations by completing a residency in dermatology and one in pathology.
This field specializes in the treatment of immune-mediated skin diseases such as lupus, bullous pemphigoid, pemphigus vulgaris, and other immune-mediated skin disorders. Specialists in this field often run their own immunopathology labs.
Mohs Surgery 莫氏手术
The dermatologic subspecialty called Mohs surgery focuses on the excision of skin cancers using a tissue-sparing technique that allows intraoperative assessment of 100% of the peripheral and deep tumor margins developed in the 1930s by Dr. Frederic E. Mohs. The procedure is defined as a type of CCPDMA processing. Physicians trained in this technique must be comfortable with both pathology and surgery, and dermatologists receive extensive training in both during their residency. Physicians who perform Mohs surgery can receive training in this specialized technique during their dermatology residency, but many will seek additional training either through preceptorships to join the American Society for Mohs Surgery or through formal one- to two-year Mohs surgery fellowship training programs administered by the American College of Mohs Surgery.
Pediatric dermatology 小儿皮肤科
Physicians can qualify for this specialization by completing both a pediatric residency and a dermatology residency. Or they might elect to complete a post-residency fellowship. This field encompasses the complex diseases of the neonates, hereditary skin diseases or genodermatoses, and the many difficulties of working with the pediatric population.
Teledermatology is a form of dermatology where telecommunication technologies are used to exchange medical information via all kinds of media (audio, visual and also data communication, but typically photos of dermatologic conditions) usually made by non-dermatologists for evaluation off-site by dermatologists). This subspecialty deals with options to view skin conditions over a large distance to provide knowledge exchange, to establish second-opinion services for experts or to use this for follow-up of individuals with chronic skin conditions.
Therapies provided by dermatologists include, but not restricted to:
- Cosmetic filler injections
- Hair removal with laser or other modalities
- Hair transplantation – a cosmetic procedure practiced by many dermatologists.
- Intralesional treatment – with steroid or chemotherapy.
- Laser therapy – for both the management of birth marks, skin disorders (like vitiligo), Tattoo removal , and cosmetic resurfacing and rejuvenation.
- Photodynamic therapy – for the treatment of skin cancer and precancerous growths.
- Phototherapy – including the use of narrowband UVB, broadband UVB, psoralen and UVB.
- Tattoo removal with laser.
- Tumescent liposuction – liposuction was invented by a gynecologist. A dermatologist (Dr. Jeffrey A. Klein) adapted the procedure to local infusion of dilute anesthetic called tumescent liposuction. This method is now widely practiced by dermatologists, plastic surgeons and gynecologists.
肿胀吸脂–吸脂手术是由妇科医生发明的。皮肤科医生(Jeffrey A.Klein杰弗 里A ·克莱因博士)使用局部稀麻醉药灌注的过程，称为肿胀吸脂。这个方法现在已经广泛被皮肤科医生，整形外科医生和妇科医生采用。
- Cryosurgery – for the treatment of warts, skin cancers, and other dermatosis.
- Radiation therapy – although rarely practiced by dermatologists, many dermatologist continue to provide radiation therapy in their office.
- Vitiligo surgery – Including procedures like autologous melanocyte transplant, suction blister grafting and punch grafting.
- Allergy testing – ‘Patch testing’ for contact dermatitis.
- Systemic therapies – including antibiotics, immunomodulators, and novel injectable products.
全身治疗 — 包括抗生素，免疫调节剂，以及新颖的注射产品。
- Topical therapies – dermatologists have the best understanding of the numerous products and compounds used topically in medicine.
局部治疗 – 皮肤科医师最能理解众多医疗产品和化合物的用途。
- Most dermatologic pharmacology can be categorized based on the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System, specifically the ATC code D.
See also 另见
- History of dermatology 皮肤科的历史
- List of dermatologists 皮肤科医生的名单
- List of cutaneous conditions 侵犯皮肤条件的名单
- Skin disease 皮肤病
- Skin lesion 皮肤损伤
External links 外部链接
- American History of Dermatology Society 美国皮肤病学会的历史
- French Society for the History of Dermatology 法国社会历史的皮肤科
- American Academy of Dermatology 美国科学院皮肤病
- Society of Investigative Dermatology 侦查皮肤科学协会
- Dermatology 皮肤科
- Medical specialties 医学专科
- Subjects taught in medical school 医学院教导的科目
- Greek loanwords 希腊外来词
Medical Specialties and Subspecialties 医学专科和分科
- Cardiac surgery 心脏手术
- Cardiothoracic surgery 心胸手术
- Colorectal surgery 结肠直肠手术
- General surgery 一般手术
- Neurosurgery 神经手术
- Ophthalmology 眼科
- Oral and maxillofacial surgery 口腔上颌面手术
- Orthopedic surgery 矫形骨科手术
- Hand surgery 手部手术
- Otolaryngology (ENT) 耳鼻喉科(耳鼻喉)
- Pediatric surgery 小儿手术
- Plastic surgery 整形手术
- Surgical oncology 外科肿瘤学
- Thoracic surgery 胸腔手术
- Transplant surgery 移植手术
- Trauma surgery 外伤手术
- Urology 泌尿科
- Vascular surgery 血管手术
Internal medicine 内科
- Allergy / Immunology 过敏/免疫学
- Andrology 男性生殖器病学
- Angiology (Vascular Medicine) 血管学(脉管医疗)
- Cardiology 心脏病学
- Endocrinology 内分泌科
- Gastroenterology 肠胃病学
- Hepatology 肝脏病学
- Geriatrics 老年病科
- Gynaecology 妇科
- Hematology 血液科
- Infectious disease 传染性疾病
- Nephrology 肾脏病学
- Oncology 肿瘤病学
- Pulmonology 肺病学
- Rheumatology 风湿病学
- Healthcare sciences 保健科学
Clinical chemistry 临床化学
Clinical immunology 临床免疫学
Medical microbiology 医疗微生物学
Transfusion medicine 输血医学
- Radiology 放射线学
Interventional radiology, (Nuclear medicine) 介入放射学(核医学）
- Pathology (Anatomical, Clinical) 病理学(解剖，临床)
- Clinical neurophysiology 临床神经生理学
Other specialties 其他专科
- Addiction medicine 成瘾药物
- Adolescent medicine 青少年医学
- Anesthesiology 麻醉科
- Dermatology 皮肤科
- Disaster medicine 灾难医疗
- Emergency medicine 急诊医疗
- Family medicine 家庭医疗
- General practice 一般行医实践
- Gynaecology 妇科
- Hospital medicine 医院用药
- Intensive-care medicine 加护医疗
- Medical genetics 学遗传学
- Neurology 神经内科
- Obstetrics 妇产科
- Occupational medicine 职业医学
- Pain management (Algiatry) 疼痛管理(Algiatry)
- Palliative care 安抚医疗
- Pediatrics (Neonatology) 儿科(新生儿科)
- Physical medicine and rehabilitation (Physiatry) 物理医学与康复(康复科/理疗学)
- Preventive medicine 预防医疗
- Psychiatry 精神病学
- Radiation oncology 放射肿瘤学
- Reproductive medicine (Reproductive endocrinology and infertility, Reproductive surgery) 生殖医学(生殖内分泌学和不孕症，生殖手术)
- Sexual medicine 性医学
- Sleep medicine 睡眠医学
- Sports medicine 运动医学
- Transplantation medicine 移植医学
- Tropical medicine (Travel medicine) 热带医学(旅行医学)
- Urogynecology 妇科泌尿学
- Physician 医生
- Dentistry 牙科
- Podiatry 足科
- Veterinary medicine 兽医学
- History of medicine 医学史
- Medical education 医学教育
- Medical school 医学院
- Personalized medicine 个性化医疗
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Source > Wikipedia at en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dermatology
Translated by > BlogHost — hkTan
Word Count > approx.1550 words in English