Posts Tagged ‘viticulture’

Wine Translation 酒意酒译

July 22, 2013 1 comment

Click to see clearer large image. 点击看清晰大图。

Click to see larger image. 点击看清晰大图

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Translator 译者



Wine Label 酒标

October 15, 2012 Leave a comment

Wine Label  酒 标

A bottle of wine from Coteaux du Layon: Clos des Bois Sélection de Grains Nobles 1994 by Jo Pithon 这是一瓶产自(法国)拉風山坡(Coteaux du Lavon)酒庄的葡萄酒:墙内酒庄特选木桶之贵腐菌浓缩甜谷类。1994年收成,由Jo Pithon酿制。

A bottle of wine from Coteaux du Layon: Clos des Bois Sélection de Grains Nobles 1994 by Jo Pithon
这是一瓶产自(法国)拉嗡山坡(Coteaux du Layon)酒庄的葡萄酒:墙内酒庄特选木桶之贵腐菌浓缩甜谷类。1994年收成,由Jo Pithon酿制。

Wine labels are important sources of information for consumers since they tell the type and origin of the wine. The label is often the only resource a buyer has for evaluating the wine before purchasing it. Certain information is ordinarily included in the wine label, such as the country of origin, quality, type of wine, alcoholic degree, producer, bottler, or importer.



Contents  目录

1. Information provided  信息提供

1.1 Label design  酒标设计

1.2 Differences by country  国与国的差别

1.3 Importance of labels in different types of wine  酒标对不同酒类的重要性

1.4 Bottler and importer information  瓶装厂与进口商信息

1.5 Misleading information  误导性信息

1.6 Accessibility  取得

2. Neck and back labels  瓶颈与瓶背的酒标

3. Wine laws  葡萄酒法律

3.1 Allergen warnings  过敏原警示

4. Collecting  珍藏

5. Personalisation  个性化

6. See also  参阅


Information Provided  信息提供

A wine label for a wine from Vouvray with a scratch and sniff sticker affixed to draw the consumer's attention. 这是来自阿芙蕊(Vouvray)酒庄的葡萄酒酒标,右上角贴了一张可手刮嗅味的贴纸来吸引买家注意。

A wine label for a wine from Vouvray with a scratch and sniff sticker affixed to draw the consumer’s attention.

Label design  酒标设计

Some wineries place great importance on the label design while others do not. There are wineries that have not changed their label’s design in over 60 years, as in the case of Château Simone, while others hire designers every year to change it. Labels may include images of works by Picasso, Chagall, and other artists, and these may be collector’s pieces. The elegance of the label does not determine the wine’s quality. Instead, it is the information contained within the label that can provide consumers with such knowledge.

有些葡萄酒厂很重视酒标设计而其他人却不重视,也有酒厂在过去60年来都未曾改变过设计,如西梦酒堡(Chateau Simone),有些则每年都要请设计师重新设计。酒标里的图片可能会采用毕卡索,夏加尔和其他艺术家的作品,这些也可能都是收藏家的珍藏品。但是,酒标的优雅外观不等于葡萄酒的品质,反而是酒标里提供的信息让消费者知道更多品质的信息。

Most New World consumers, and increasingly European consumers, prefer to purchase wine with varietal labels and/or with brand name labels. A recent study of younger wine drinkers in the U.S. found that they perceived labels with châteaux on them to be stuffy or old-fashioned. Producers often attempt to make selecting and purchasing wine easy and non-intimidating by making their labels playful and inviting. The financial success of New World wine attributed to striking label designs has led some European producers to follow suit, as in the case of the redesign of Mouton Cadet.

大部分新世代(新世界)的消费者以及越来越多的欧洲消费者们喜欢买贴上不同葡萄品种酒标的葡萄酒亦或名牌酒标。最近在美国进行对年轻一代饮酒人的调查发现,他们认为酒标上有酒堡的字眼是沉闷与老套的,因此,造酒厂通常都会把酒标设计得有趣也诱人,方便这些人选购,又没有压力。新世代葡萄酒的成功生财要归功于炫目的酒标设计,也迫使一些老牌的欧洲酒厂纷纷仿效,比如“木头军官”(Mouton Cadet)的重新设计。


Differences by country  国与国的差别

Wine classification systems differ by country. Wines can be classified by region and area only. For example, there are 151 châteaux in Bordeaux with “Figeac” and 22 estates in Burgundy with “Corton” on their labels. In Burgundy, there are 110 appellations in an area only one-fifth the size of Bordeaux. Complicating the system is the fact that it is common for villages to append the name of their most famous vineyard to that of the village.


In Spain and Portugal, the authenticity of the wine is guaranteed by a seal on the label or a band over the cork under the capsule. This is promulgated by the growers’ association in each area.


German wine labels are particularly noted for the detail that they can provide in determining quality and style of the wine.


Almost every New World wine is labelled by grape variety and geographic origin. Semi-generic designations were once quite common in countries such as Australia and the USA, but the wine authorities in areas such as Champagne have not been afraid to bring lawsuits against the use of their names outside their region, and semi-generic names are falling out of use.

几乎每一个新世代葡萄酒都以葡萄酒品种和原产地名来贴标签。有一个时期,半通用称谓在诸如澳洲和美国很盛行,但是,一些地方如法国香槟(Champagne) 的葡萄酒当局就会毫不犹豫起诉这个区域以外任何使用香槟这个地名的商家,而半通用的名称当然就不能再用。

Wines whose label does not indicate the name of the winery or the winemaker are referred to as “cleanskin” wine, particularly in Australia.


Degree of sweetness information is particularly inconsistent, with some countries’ manufacturers always indicating it in standardized fashion in their language (brut, dolce, etc.), some traditionally not mentioning it at all or referring to it informally and vaguely in a rear-label description, and yet other countries’ regulators requiring such information to be included (commonly on a secondary label) even when such information has to be added by the importer. In certain cases of conflicting regulations, a wine may, for example, even be labelled “sweet” by a manufacturer, but also “semi-sweet” (as per a different law) in the local language translation on a supplementary label mandated by the jurisdiction where it is sold.



Importance of labels in different types of wine  酒标对不同葡萄酒类的重要性

The information contained in labels is important to determine the quality of the wine. For example, great importance needs to be attached to vintage dates when there are differences in climate. The taste and quality of the wine can change from year to year depending on the climate. Knowing the vintage is specially important when buying fine wines because the quality of the wine can vary from year to year due to climatic differences. The quickest way to determine the quality of the year is to use a wine chart.


Vintage dates may not be important, for example, there are no vintage dates on bottles of sherry. On the other hand, wines may or may not have vintages. Champagne is usually a blend from more than one year and only sometimes sold as a vintage wine. Also, Port is only sold with a vintage in years of exceptional quality.



Bottler and importer information  瓶装厂与进口商信息

A wine label may include the producer, the bottler and the merchant’s names. The bottler’s name must always be included in the label. The importer’s name must be included in the label only for countries outside the Common Market. While it is not necessary for a wine to be bottled at its place of origin, it is obligatory for classed growth claret and vintage port to be bottled in Bordeaux and Oporto. Also, bottling of Alsace must be done within the appellation. Thus, it is important to look for terms such as mis en bouteille au château or mis au domaine because they tell you the wine is estate bottled.

酒标上会注明厂商,瓶装厂以及酒商的名字,瓶装厂的名字是一定要有的,在欧洲共同市场以外的国家就必须打印进口商的名字。葡萄酒虽然不必在原产地装瓶,但是定级种植的红葡萄酒(Claret)以及有年份的葡特酒(Port)就必须在法国的波尔多(Bordeaux)和葡萄牙的奥葡多(Oporto)装瓶。另外,阿萨斯(Alsace)也必须在原产地装瓶。因此,重要的是,你必须在酒标上找到像“酒堡内装酒”(mis en bouteille au château)或“酒庄内装酒”(mis au domaine)的字(法文),才能知道葡萄酒是在哪一个庄园里装瓶。


Misleading information  误导性信息

Labels may include terms that may be perceived as misleading. The term Blanc de blancs may be included in a label. This term means “white wine made from white grapes”. The fact is that white wines are predominantly made from white grapes, with the exception of many sparkling wines, the common use of the red Pinot noir in Champagne wines being a typical example.

酒标里的一些术语也有可能会有误导性,“白中之白”(Blanc de blancs)这个字就也会出现在酒标里,这个术语的意思是“用白葡萄酿制的白葡萄酒”。事实上,白葡萄是酿制白葡萄酒的主要材料,但却不用来酿制多种起泡葡萄酒,典型的例子如普遍使用黑比诺红葡萄酿制的香槟酒。

Although the word château is most associated with Bordeaux, it does not mean that the wine does come from Bordeaux, and there may not be any kind of building – let alone a château – associated with the vineyard. The name château can even be included in wines from Australia or California. Labels of Vin de pays never include the word château.

虽然酒堡(château)这个字都跟波尔多(Bordeaux)关系密切,但不表示葡萄酒就是出自波尔多,而且不一定会有任何建筑,连古堡都没有,仍旧是一个葡萄园。酒堡这个字甚至出现在澳大利亚或加利福尼亚的酒标上,而地区餐酒(Vin de Pays)的酒标就没有酒堡(或酒庄)这个字。

Cru, a word used to classify wines can mean different things. For example, in the Médoc part of Bordeaux, this terms means the château is one of the classified growths in the regions. In Saint-Émilion, the term cru is of little importance because it bears little relation to quality. For Provence the term cru classé is included only for historical reasons. On the other hand, the use of the term cru in Switzerland has no foundation and it is included at the producer’s discretion.

等级(Cru)这个字是用来给葡萄酒分级的字,但也可以有不同的意思,比方说,在波尔多的梅铎(Médoc) ,这个术语是指这个酒庄是这个区域的其中一个定级种植园。在聖爱美浓(Saint-Émilion),等级这个字就不重要,因为跟品质没什么关联。在普罗旺斯(Provence),特级种植园(cru classé)这个术语只为了历史的因素而采用。另一方面,等级这个字在瑞士就没有基础,要不要用由酒厂酌量决定。


Accessibility  取得

A wine label from Lazarus Wines printed in Braille. Wines from this vineyard are grown, cultivated, and produced by blind employees. 这是印有盲文酒标的拉萨鲁斯(Lazarus)葡萄酒,这个葡萄园的葡萄都由盲人员工种植,栽培和生产。

A wine label from Lazarus Wines printed in Braille. Wines from this vineyard are grown, cultivated, and produced by blind employees.


To better reach the market of blind or sight-impaired wine consumers, labels have appeared printed in Braille. Currently the only known winemaker who has taken the initiative to print all their labels in Braille is Chapoutier winery in France, who began the practice in 1996. Other wineries in a number of countries have followed Chapoutier’s lead and have braille available on at least some of their bottles.



Neck and Back Labels  瓶颈与瓶背的酒标

Neck and/or back labels may appear on a bottle. The neck label may include the vintage date and the back label usually gives extra (and usually optional) information about the wine. Government required warnings are usually found in the back label, as well as UPCs. For example, the United States requires alcoholic beverages to include a warning regarding the consumption of alcohol during pregnancy. The label also has to mention the possibility of a reduced ability to drive while intoxicated. Wine labels in the United States must also disclose that the wine contains sulfites.



Wine Laws  葡萄酒法律

There are different reasons for wine laws. Labelling regulations can be intended to prevent wine from sounding better than it is. Also, it is illegal to say that a wine is made from one grape when it is actually from another.


The label must also include the name and address of the bottler of the wine. If the producer is not the bottler, the bottle will say that the wine was bottled by X bottled for Y producer. Table wines may carry the name of the bottler and the postal code. The label must also include the country of origin.


The size of the font is also regulated for mandatory information. Alcohol content must be included in the label, with some jurisdictions also requiring brief nutritional data, such as caloric value, carbohydrate/sugar content, etc. In Australia and the United States a wine label must also mention that it has sulfites in certain circumstances.


Regulations may permit table wines to be labelled with only the colour and flavour, and no indication of quality. The use of words such as Cuvée and grand vin in labels is controlled. As mentioned above, a vin de pays must never be from a château, but from a domaine.

法规也许会准许佐餐葡萄酒在酒标上只注明颜色和味道,不指出品质。酒标里用的字眼如“大量酿制葡萄酒”(Cuvée)和(波尔多)“一级酒”(grand vin)就受到管制。如上所述,地区餐酒不可能是产自酒堡,而只是出自一般酒庄。


Allergen warnings  过敏原警示

New Zealand and Australian labelling regulations have required an allergen warning to appear on wine labels since 2002 due to the use of egg whites, milk, and isinglass in the fining and clarifying of the wine. The United States is considering similar requirements. Winemakers in the U.S. have been resistant to this requirement because the decision to put a wine through a fining process normally occurs after the labels have been ordered, which could lead to allergen warnings on wines that have had no exposure to allergens. Wine labels from the member states of the European Union must also disclose after 30 June 2012 that the wine was treated with casein and ovalbumin, derived from milk and egg respectively, used as fining agents in the winemaking.



Collecting  珍藏

Wine labels have long been collected. This can turn into a full-fledged hobby, with collections organized by theme, country, or region. For others, saving labels may be part of maintaining a wine tasting-notes journal, or just simply to remember a particular wine.


While labels were once easily steamed off, recent automatic bottling and labeling processes at wineries have led to the use of stronger glues. Removing these labels is often difficult and may result in considerable damage to the label. A recent, though by no means universal, innovation to bypass this problem is the use of bottles that come with the ability to tear off a small part of the label in order to remind the drinker of the name and bearing of the wine.


If full label removal is desired, a common approach involves putting hot water inside the bottle which makes the hold of the glue weaker. A knife can then be used to remove the label from one side by lifting it off with even pressure.


Commercial label removal kits apply a strong, transparent sticker over the label surface. The goal is to carefully pull off the sticker and literally tear the front design of the label away from the glued back. In practice, varying degrees of success are encountered and extensive damage to the label can occur.



Personalisation  个性化

Creating custom wine labels has gained popularity over the years, with people needing labels for wedding favours, holiday gifts, and promotional campaigns. This is often carried out by specialist companies to avoid any breaches of wine law.


The increase in home wine making has contributed significantly, with hundreds of thousands of people around the world making their own wine instead of buying it. These people often make their own labels as well, or use online label companies. Homemade labels range from ink jet printing on copy paper and adhered with milk, to high quality designs printed on expensive label stock and printed with laser printers.



See also  参阅

  • International variety  国际品种

—— END ——


Source > Wikipedia at

Translated by > BlogHost – hkTan

Word Count > approx.2022 words in English


Wine Law 葡萄酒法律

October 1, 2012 Leave a comment

Wine Law  葡 萄 酒 法 律


Wine laws are legislation regulating various aspects of production and sales of wine. The purpose of wine laws includes combating wine fraud, by means of regulated protected designations of origin, labelling practices and classification of wine, as well as regulating allowed additives and procedures in winemaking and viticulture. Legislation affecting all kinds of alcohol beverages, such as the legal drinking age and licensing practices related to distribution and sales, are usually not considered wine laws.


Wine is regulated by regional, state, and local laws. The laws and their relative rigidity differ for New World and Old World wines. Old World wines tend to have more stringent regulations than New World wines. Various wine laws, however, may include appellation-based regulations that cover boundaries as well as permitted grape varieties and winemaking practice-such as the French Appellation d’origine contrôlée (AOC), Italian Denominazione di origine controllata (DOC), Spanish Denominación de Origen (DO) and Portuguese Denominação de Origem Controlada (DOC). In some New World wine regions, such as the United States and Australia, the wine laws of the appellation systems (American Viticultural Area (AVA) and Australian Geographical Indication (GIs)) only pertain to boundary specifics and guaranteeing that a certain percentage of grapes come from the area listed on the wine label.

葡萄酒受到區域,州和當地法律的管制,這些法律與其相對僵硬的條例對新世界(世代)和舊世界(世代)的酒都有所不同。然而,各種葡萄酒法律可以包括以產區為本的法規,涵蓋了產區範圍,獲准的葡萄品種以及釀酒法如法國優良受管原產區的d’origine contrôlée(AOC),意大利最優質受管原產區的Denominazione di origine controllata(DOC),西班牙原產區的Denominación de Origen(DO)和葡萄牙受管原產區的Denominação de Origem Controlada(DOC)。在一些新世代葡萄酒的區域如美國和澳洲的產區系統(美國葡萄栽培園區(AVA)和澳洲地理迹象(GIs))的葡萄酒法律只涵蓋範圍的細則以及保證某個百分比的葡萄酒是產自酒標上列明的產區。

Some wine laws are established by local governments and are specific to that wine region, such as the 1954 municipal decree in the village of Châteauneuf-du-Pape that banned the overhead flying, landing or taking off of aviation in the commune which could negatively affect the region’s vineyards and wine production.



Contents  目錄

1. History  歷史

2. Comparative wine laws  可比較的葡萄酒法律

2.1 European Union  歐盟

2.2 United States  美國

3. See also  參閱


History  歷史

The oldest known wine laws were created by the Roman emperor Domitian, who c. 92 issued an edict that banned the plantings of any new vineyards in Italy and ordered the uprooting of half of the vineyards in Roman provinces. The purpose of the edict was to improve the food supply of Roman cities by increasing the production of cereals. There is evidence to suggest that Domitian’s edict was largely ignored in the Roman provinces. Domitian’s edict, while probably not followed to any greater extent, stayed in effect for 188 years until Emperor Probus repealed the measure in 280.


In the Holy Roman Empire, the oldest wine law was created by the Reichstag 1498 to combat wine fraud.


In the wake of the Great French Wine Blight, which led to much wine fraud to supplement diminishing supply, wine laws were created in France to combat fraud. The French wine legislation later evolved to the AOC system, and inspired common European Union regulations.



Comparative Wine Laws  可比較的葡萄酒法律

European Union  歐盟

In the European Union (EU), much of the wine law is common to all countries through the European Union wine regulations which is a part of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP). The CAP Wine Regime consists of a set of rules that govern the wine sector, with the aim of achieving a balanced and open market. The principal features are rules governing production, oenological practices and processes, classification of wines, a range of structural and support measures, detailed rules governing the description and labeling of wines, and imports from non-EU countries.


In addition to regulations that apply to all EU members, each EU country has its own framework of laws which govern aspects of winemaking such as the percentage of a grape to be included in a wine labeled with that variety name. For instance, in France wine professionals acribe to the Appellation d’Origine Contrôlée (AOC) system, which guarantees the origin of wine and other food products, such as cheese.

除了適用於所有歐盟成員國的法規以外,每個歐盟國都有自己的一套法律架構來管制制酒的各個方面,譬如酒標上注明的葡萄酒品種名稱需要有多少百分比的葡萄在內。舉例說,遵守“受管優質原產區”(AOC) 系統的法國葡萄酒專業業者就保證葡萄酒的原產正宗,也保證其他食物如奶酪的原產品質。


United States  美國

In the United States, the wine laws are more flexible than European standards in regards to regulations on what viticultural and winemaking practice are allowed in each wine region. The Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (BATF) defines and approves applications for regions to become American Viticultural Areas. This system was established in 1978 with the Augusta AVA in Missouri designated as the first recognized AVA on June 20, 1980. A sizable portion of American wine laws relate to wine labelling practices and include the stipulations that if an AVA name appears on the label that at least 85% of grapes used to produce the wine must come from that AVA. In addition to AVAs, every American state and county can produce wine and label it under their state/county wide appellation provided at least 75% of the grapes come from that area. The state of California and Texas have wine laws increasing the requirement to 100% and 85%, respectively, for use of a state-wide appellation on the wine label.


The appearance of grape variety (or varietal) and vintage year is also regulated by US wine labeling laws with requirements of at least 75% for the grape variety and 95% being harvested in that vintage year for either to appear on the wine label. The state of Oregon has increased the restriction for grape variety to 90%, with exception of Cabernet Sauvignon which under Oregon wine laws can have a minimum 75%. Additionally, all US wine must include the Surgeon General warning about dangers associated with alcohol consumption and a warning about the possible use of sulfites. Several wineries and importers have had conflicts with the BATF over these labeling requirements, one notable example being the importer Kermit Lynch. The criticism is typically centered on the absence of inclusion about the potential positive aspects of moderate wine consumption (such as the so-called “French paradox”) and that many wineries are forced to label their wines as “containing sulfites” when the decision to use sulfites are normally not made until long after wine labels have been ordered and the finished wine may contain no sulfites at all.

葡萄品種和收成年份的顯示也受到美國葡萄酒標籤法律的管制,要求至少有75%該品種的葡萄成份以及至少95%在那一年收成才能出現在酒標上。俄勒岡州(Oregon)把葡萄品種的要求提高到90%,除了赤霞珠(Cabernet Sauvignon)這個品種例外,俄勒岡州的葡萄酒法律允許這種酒只需至少75%就行。此外,所有美國葡萄酒標籤上必須加“外科總監”(公共健康總發言人)對喝酒精的警告字句,以及警告可能有用到的亞硫酸鹽。一些酒廠和進口商在標籤要求上跟BATF針鋒相對,比較突出的例子是Kermit Lynch進口商。批評通常都圍繞在沒考慮到適度喝酒的潛在好處上(比如所謂的“法國人悖論”),而且很多酒廠都被迫在他們的酒標上聲明“內含亞硫酸鹽”,因為成酒可能完全不含任何亞硫酸鹽,而且一般上都是在酒標已經預訂多時之後才來決定要加這個字眼。


See also  參閱

  • Alcohol law  酒精法


—— END ——


Source >Wikipedia at

Translated by > BlogHost – hkTan

Word Count > approx.977 words in English


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