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Wine Translation 酒意酒译

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Wine Label 酒标

October 15, 2012 Leave a comment

Wine Label  酒 标

A bottle of wine from Coteaux du Layon: Clos des Bois Sélection de Grains Nobles 1994 by Jo Pithon 这是一瓶产自(法国)拉風山坡(Coteaux du Lavon)酒庄的葡萄酒:墙内酒庄特选木桶之贵腐菌浓缩甜谷类。1994年收成,由Jo Pithon酿制。

A bottle of wine from Coteaux du Layon: Clos des Bois Sélection de Grains Nobles 1994 by Jo Pithon
这是一瓶产自(法国)拉嗡山坡(Coteaux du Layon)酒庄的葡萄酒:墙内酒庄特选木桶之贵腐菌浓缩甜谷类。1994年收成,由Jo Pithon酿制。

Wine labels are important sources of information for consumers since they tell the type and origin of the wine. The label is often the only resource a buyer has for evaluating the wine before purchasing it. Certain information is ordinarily included in the wine label, such as the country of origin, quality, type of wine, alcoholic degree, producer, bottler, or importer.

酒标对消费者来说是重要的信息来源,显示葡萄酒的类别和原产地,通常也是买家在购买前可以辨别评估的唯一信息来源。有一些信息是基本会出现在酒标里的,包括原产国,品质,葡萄酒类,酒精浓度,造酒厂,瓶装厂或进口商。

 

Contents  目录

1. Information provided  信息提供

1.1 Label design  酒标设计

1.2 Differences by country  国与国的差别

1.3 Importance of labels in different types of wine  酒标对不同酒类的重要性

1.4 Bottler and importer information  瓶装厂与进口商信息

1.5 Misleading information  误导性信息

1.6 Accessibility  取得

2. Neck and back labels  瓶颈与瓶背的酒标

3. Wine laws  葡萄酒法律

3.1 Allergen warnings  过敏原警示

4. Collecting  珍藏

5. Personalisation  个性化

6. See also  参阅

 

Information Provided  信息提供

A wine label for a wine from Vouvray with a scratch and sniff sticker affixed to draw the consumer's attention. 这是来自阿芙蕊(Vouvray)酒庄的葡萄酒酒标,右上角贴了一张可手刮嗅味的贴纸来吸引买家注意。

A wine label for a wine from Vouvray with a scratch and sniff sticker affixed to draw the consumer’s attention.
这是来自阿芙蕊(Vouvray)酒庄的葡萄酒酒标,右上角贴了一张可手刮嗅味的贴纸来吸引买家注意。

Label design  酒标设计

Some wineries place great importance on the label design while others do not. There are wineries that have not changed their label’s design in over 60 years, as in the case of Château Simone, while others hire designers every year to change it. Labels may include images of works by Picasso, Chagall, and other artists, and these may be collector’s pieces. The elegance of the label does not determine the wine’s quality. Instead, it is the information contained within the label that can provide consumers with such knowledge.

有些葡萄酒厂很重视酒标设计而其他人却不重视,也有酒厂在过去60年来都未曾改变过设计,如西梦酒堡(Chateau Simone),有些则每年都要请设计师重新设计。酒标里的图片可能会采用毕卡索,夏加尔和其他艺术家的作品,这些也可能都是收藏家的珍藏品。但是,酒标的优雅外观不等于葡萄酒的品质,反而是酒标里提供的信息让消费者知道更多品质的信息。

Most New World consumers, and increasingly European consumers, prefer to purchase wine with varietal labels and/or with brand name labels. A recent study of younger wine drinkers in the U.S. found that they perceived labels with châteaux on them to be stuffy or old-fashioned. Producers often attempt to make selecting and purchasing wine easy and non-intimidating by making their labels playful and inviting. The financial success of New World wine attributed to striking label designs has led some European producers to follow suit, as in the case of the redesign of Mouton Cadet.

大部分新世代(新世界)的消费者以及越来越多的欧洲消费者们喜欢买贴上不同葡萄品种酒标的葡萄酒亦或名牌酒标。最近在美国进行对年轻一代饮酒人的调查发现,他们认为酒标上有酒堡的字眼是沉闷与老套的,因此,造酒厂通常都会把酒标设计得有趣也诱人,方便这些人选购,又没有压力。新世代葡萄酒的成功生财要归功于炫目的酒标设计,也迫使一些老牌的欧洲酒厂纷纷仿效,比如“木头军官”(Mouton Cadet)的重新设计。

 

Differences by country  国与国的差别

Wine classification systems differ by country. Wines can be classified by region and area only. For example, there are 151 châteaux in Bordeaux with “Figeac” and 22 estates in Burgundy with “Corton” on their labels. In Burgundy, there are 110 appellations in an area only one-fifth the size of Bordeaux. Complicating the system is the fact that it is common for villages to append the name of their most famous vineyard to that of the village.

每个国家的葡萄酒级别也不同,可以只用区域和地方来分级,比方说,法国的波尔多(Bordeaux)就有151个酒庄在酒标上有飞甲客(Figeac)这个字眼,在勃艮地(Burgundy)的22个庄园在他们的酒标上就有柯度(Corton)这个字。法国的勃艮地只占波尔多五分之一的某个地区就有110个原产地。系统搞得更复杂的做法就是,这些村庄的人都习惯以村庄地名来为他们最著名的葡萄庄园取名。

In Spain and Portugal, the authenticity of the wine is guaranteed by a seal on the label or a band over the cork under the capsule. This is promulgated by the growers’ association in each area.

在西班牙和葡萄牙,葡萄酒的正宗身份是在酒标上加盖一个密封印章或者在铝盖下的软木塞上加贴一张贴纸,这是每个地区的种植者公会公布推广的做法。

German wine labels are particularly noted for the detail that they can provide in determining quality and style of the wine.

德国酒标比较特别的地方在于细节,提供可以确定葡萄酒品质与类型的信息。

Almost every New World wine is labelled by grape variety and geographic origin. Semi-generic designations were once quite common in countries such as Australia and the USA, but the wine authorities in areas such as Champagne have not been afraid to bring lawsuits against the use of their names outside their region, and semi-generic names are falling out of use.

几乎每一个新世代葡萄酒都以葡萄酒品种和原产地名来贴标签。有一个时期,半通用称谓在诸如澳洲和美国很盛行,但是,一些地方如法国香槟(Champagne) 的葡萄酒当局就会毫不犹豫起诉这个区域以外任何使用香槟这个地名的商家,而半通用的名称当然就不能再用。

Wines whose label does not indicate the name of the winery or the winemaker are referred to as “cleanskin” wine, particularly in Australia.

葡萄酒的酒标上如果没有显示酒厂或酿酒者的名字就叫做“无印”(无牌)葡萄酒,在澳大利亚尤其普遍。

Degree of sweetness information is particularly inconsistent, with some countries’ manufacturers always indicating it in standardized fashion in their language (brut, dolce, etc.), some traditionally not mentioning it at all or referring to it informally and vaguely in a rear-label description, and yet other countries’ regulators requiring such information to be included (commonly on a secondary label) even when such information has to be added by the importer. In certain cases of conflicting regulations, a wine may, for example, even be labelled “sweet” by a manufacturer, but also “semi-sweet” (as per a different law) in the local language translation on a supplementary label mandated by the jurisdiction where it is sold.

甜度的信息也很不一致,一些国家的制造商一直都以标准模式用他们的语言去显示甜度(如极干,微甜之类),有些传统就只字不提,或者在标签背后非正式和模棱两可地交代,而其他国家的监管机构就要求出示这些信息(通常都在次要的酒标上),即便是要由进口商来加入这些信息。在一些有矛盾的规则案例中,比方说,制造商可以标明一种葡萄酒是“甜”的,但是在出售地点的法律却规定要在附加的酒标上显示当地语言翻译成的“半甜”(以不同地方法律的定义为准)。

 

Importance of labels in different types of wine  酒标对不同葡萄酒类的重要性

The information contained in labels is important to determine the quality of the wine. For example, great importance needs to be attached to vintage dates when there are differences in climate. The taste and quality of the wine can change from year to year depending on the climate. Knowing the vintage is specially important when buying fine wines because the quality of the wine can vary from year to year due to climatic differences. The quickest way to determine the quality of the year is to use a wine chart.

酒标里的信息很重要,可以用来确定葡萄酒的品质,比方说,气候的不同使到收成期更显得重要,因为葡萄酒的味道和品质会根据气候的差别每年都在变。购买葡萄酒时要知道收成年份会特别重要是因为产区气候的不同会导致葡萄酒的品质每年都不一样,确定年份的品质最快的办法就是使用葡萄酒年份表来查。

Vintage dates may not be important, for example, there are no vintage dates on bottles of sherry. On the other hand, wines may or may not have vintages. Champagne is usually a blend from more than one year and only sometimes sold as a vintage wine. Also, Port is only sold with a vintage in years of exceptional quality.

收成日期也不一定重要,比如说,强化雪丽酒(Sherry)的酒瓶上就没注明收成年份。另一方面,葡萄酒可以有或者没有年份。香槟酒通常都混合了收成超过一年的葡萄,有时候也只卖有年份的老酒,比如葡特酒(Port—葡萄牙强化酒或葡萄牙特优酒)这种只卖有年份品质特优的酒。

 

Bottler and importer information  瓶装厂与进口商信息

A wine label may include the producer, the bottler and the merchant’s names. The bottler’s name must always be included in the label. The importer’s name must be included in the label only for countries outside the Common Market. While it is not necessary for a wine to be bottled at its place of origin, it is obligatory for classed growth claret and vintage port to be bottled in Bordeaux and Oporto. Also, bottling of Alsace must be done within the appellation. Thus, it is important to look for terms such as mis en bouteille au château or mis au domaine because they tell you the wine is estate bottled.

酒标上会注明厂商,瓶装厂以及酒商的名字,瓶装厂的名字是一定要有的,在欧洲共同市场以外的国家就必须打印进口商的名字。葡萄酒虽然不必在原产地装瓶,但是定级种植的红葡萄酒(Claret)以及有年份的葡特酒(Port)就必须在法国的波尔多(Bordeaux)和葡萄牙的奥葡多(Oporto)装瓶。另外,阿萨斯(Alsace)也必须在原产地装瓶。因此,重要的是,你必须在酒标上找到像“酒堡内装酒”(mis en bouteille au château)或“酒庄内装酒”(mis au domaine)的字(法文),才能知道葡萄酒是在哪一个庄园里装瓶。

 

Misleading information  误导性信息

Labels may include terms that may be perceived as misleading. The term Blanc de blancs may be included in a label. This term means “white wine made from white grapes”. The fact is that white wines are predominantly made from white grapes, with the exception of many sparkling wines, the common use of the red Pinot noir in Champagne wines being a typical example.

酒标里的一些术语也有可能会有误导性,“白中之白”(Blanc de blancs)这个字就也会出现在酒标里,这个术语的意思是“用白葡萄酿制的白葡萄酒”。事实上,白葡萄是酿制白葡萄酒的主要材料,但却不用来酿制多种起泡葡萄酒,典型的例子如普遍使用黑比诺红葡萄酿制的香槟酒。

Although the word château is most associated with Bordeaux, it does not mean that the wine does come from Bordeaux, and there may not be any kind of building – let alone a château – associated with the vineyard. The name château can even be included in wines from Australia or California. Labels of Vin de pays never include the word château.

虽然酒堡(château)这个字都跟波尔多(Bordeaux)关系密切,但不表示葡萄酒就是出自波尔多,而且不一定会有任何建筑,连古堡都没有,仍旧是一个葡萄园。酒堡这个字甚至出现在澳大利亚或加利福尼亚的酒标上,而地区餐酒(Vin de Pays)的酒标就没有酒堡(或酒庄)这个字。

Cru, a word used to classify wines can mean different things. For example, in the Médoc part of Bordeaux, this terms means the château is one of the classified growths in the regions. In Saint-Émilion, the term cru is of little importance because it bears little relation to quality. For Provence the term cru classé is included only for historical reasons. On the other hand, the use of the term cru in Switzerland has no foundation and it is included at the producer’s discretion.

等级(Cru)这个字是用来给葡萄酒分级的字,但也可以有不同的意思,比方说,在波尔多的梅铎(Médoc) ,这个术语是指这个酒庄是这个区域的其中一个定级种植园。在聖爱美浓(Saint-Émilion),等级这个字就不重要,因为跟品质没什么关联。在普罗旺斯(Provence),特级种植园(cru classé)这个术语只为了历史的因素而采用。另一方面,等级这个字在瑞士就没有基础,要不要用由酒厂酌量决定。

 

Accessibility  取得

A wine label from Lazarus Wines printed in Braille. Wines from this vineyard are grown, cultivated, and produced by blind employees. 这是印有盲文酒标的拉萨鲁斯(Lazarus)葡萄酒,这个葡萄园的葡萄都由盲人员工种植,栽培和生产。

A wine label from Lazarus Wines printed in Braille. Wines from this vineyard are grown, cultivated, and produced by blind employees.
这是印有盲文酒标的拉萨鲁斯(Lazarus)葡萄酒,这个葡萄园的葡萄都由盲人员工种植,栽培和生产。

 

To better reach the market of blind or sight-impaired wine consumers, labels have appeared printed in Braille. Currently the only known winemaker who has taken the initiative to print all their labels in Braille is Chapoutier winery in France, who began the practice in 1996. Other wineries in a number of countries have followed Chapoutier’s lead and have braille available on at least some of their bottles.

为了开发盲眼或视力受损的消费群市场,酒标就以盲文(点字)打印。目前已知唯一用这种印法的造酒厂是法国的沙普迪亚(Chapoutier)酒厂,从1996年起就开始这么做。一些国家的酒厂也仿效沙普迪亚的做法,在他们的一些酒瓶上提供盲文的酒标。

 

Neck and Back Labels  瓶颈与瓶背的酒标

Neck and/or back labels may appear on a bottle. The neck label may include the vintage date and the back label usually gives extra (and usually optional) information about the wine. Government required warnings are usually found in the back label, as well as UPCs. For example, the United States requires alcoholic beverages to include a warning regarding the consumption of alcohol during pregnancy. The label also has to mention the possibility of a reduced ability to drive while intoxicated. Wine labels in the United States must also disclose that the wine contains sulfites.

酒瓶上也会贴有瓶颈亦或瓶背的酒标。瓶颈的酒标上会注明年份,瓶背的酒标通常都会(也只是选择之一)提供额外的信息。官方要求的警示语会出现在瓶背的酒标上,也在通用产品代码(UPC)上出现。比方说,美国政府要求酒精饮料都要警示怀孕期间喝酒会有危险,酒标也必须声明酒后开车的危险,美国的酒标也必须披露葡萄酒是否内含亚硫酸盐。

 

Wine Laws  葡萄酒法律

There are different reasons for wine laws. Labelling regulations can be intended to prevent wine from sounding better than it is. Also, it is illegal to say that a wine is made from one grape when it is actually from another.

葡萄酒法律的订立有各种不同的原因,酒标的法规是要防止言过其实,而且,要说葡萄酒是用某一种葡萄酿制,其实是另外一种,这也是合法的。

The label must also include the name and address of the bottler of the wine. If the producer is not the bottler, the bottle will say that the wine was bottled by X bottled for Y producer. Table wines may carry the name of the bottler and the postal code. The label must also include the country of origin.

酒标必须列明葡萄酒装瓶厂的名字和地址。如果造酒厂不是装酒厂,酒标上就会说明这瓶酒是X装瓶厂为Y造酒厂装的。佐餐葡萄酒的酒标也可以附上装瓶厂的名字和邮政编码,酒标还得注明原产国。

The size of the font is also regulated for mandatory information. Alcohol content must be included in the label, with some jurisdictions also requiring brief nutritional data, such as caloric value, carbohydrate/sugar content, etc. In Australia and the United States a wine label must also mention that it has sulfites in certain circumstances.

字体的大小也是受管制的必要信息。酒精成分必须在酒标里注明,一些地方的法律还要求加入一些简短的营养数据如热值(卡路里指数),碳水化合物/糖含量等等。澳大利亚和美国的葡萄酒酒标必须说明在某些情况之下内含亚硫酸盐。

Regulations may permit table wines to be labelled with only the colour and flavour, and no indication of quality. The use of words such as Cuvée and grand vin in labels is controlled. As mentioned above, a vin de pays must never be from a château, but from a domaine.

法规也许会准许佐餐葡萄酒在酒标上只注明颜色和味道,不指出品质。酒标里用的字眼如“大量酿制葡萄酒”(Cuvée)和(波尔多)“一级酒”(grand vin)就受到管制。如上所述,地区餐酒不可能是产自酒堡,而只是出自一般酒庄。

 

Allergen warnings  过敏原警示

New Zealand and Australian labelling regulations have required an allergen warning to appear on wine labels since 2002 due to the use of egg whites, milk, and isinglass in the fining and clarifying of the wine. The United States is considering similar requirements. Winemakers in the U.S. have been resistant to this requirement because the decision to put a wine through a fining process normally occurs after the labels have been ordered, which could lead to allergen warnings on wines that have had no exposure to allergens. Wine labels from the member states of the European Union must also disclose after 30 June 2012 that the wine was treated with casein and ovalbumin, derived from milk and egg respectively, used as fining agents in the winemaking.

新西兰和澳大利亚的酒标法规要求从2002年起。酒标上要打印过敏原的警示语,那是因为酿酒过程中使用了蛋清(蛋白),牛奶和鱼胶来澄清杂质让葡萄酒变透明。美国政府也考虑类似规定,但是美国的酒厂很抗拒这项官方要求,因为决定让葡萄酒进入澄清过程时,酒标通常已经预订好了,而且葡萄酒本身并没有接触到过敏原,却还要贴上有过敏原警示语的酒标。欧盟会员国的酒标也必须在2012年6月30日之前披露葡萄酒是否有用到酪蛋白和卵清蛋白来处理,分别从牛奶和鸡蛋提取出来,拿来当酿酒用的澄清剂。

 

Collecting  珍藏

Wine labels have long been collected. This can turn into a full-fledged hobby, with collections organized by theme, country, or region. For others, saving labels may be part of maintaining a wine tasting-notes journal, or just simply to remember a particular wine.

葡萄酒酒标一直都有人在收藏,还演变成一个全面性的嗜好,以主题,国家或区域来分类。对一些人来说,收藏酒标可能只是保存品酒笔记的日志,或者只是为了记住某一种葡萄酒。

While labels were once easily steamed off, recent automatic bottling and labeling processes at wineries have led to the use of stronger glues. Removing these labels is often difficult and may result in considerable damage to the label. A recent, though by no means universal, innovation to bypass this problem is the use of bottles that come with the ability to tear off a small part of the label in order to remind the drinker of the name and bearing of the wine.

虽然酒标曾经一度很容易就可以用蒸汽除下来,但是酒厂采用最新的自动化装瓶以及贴标签过程使用粘性更强的胶水,要完好地除下标签纸都很困难,可能会严重损坏贴纸。最新的发明,虽然还不是全部人在用的解决办法就是使用可以除下一小部分酒标的酒瓶,方便提醒酒客那种葡萄酒的名字和内容。

If full label removal is desired, a common approach involves putting hot water inside the bottle which makes the hold of the glue weaker. A knife can then be used to remove the label from one side by lifting it off with even pressure.

如果真的需要除下整张标签,常见的做法是给酒瓶装热水去软化胶水,然后就可以用刀片塞入酒标的尖角,再用平均力度掀开来。

Commercial label removal kits apply a strong, transparent sticker over the label surface. The goal is to carefully pull off the sticker and literally tear the front design of the label away from the glued back. In practice, varying degrees of success are encountered and extensive damage to the label can occur.

商用的标签纸移除工具是使用强力的透明粘纸压在酒标表面,目标是要小心扯下粘纸,同时连表层的酒标也一起扯下来,让粘胶继续贴在酒瓶上。不过,实践的成功率不一,也会严重损坏酒标纸。

 

Personalisation  个性化

Creating custom wine labels has gained popularity over the years, with people needing labels for wedding favours, holiday gifts, and promotional campaigns. This is often carried out by specialist companies to avoid any breaches of wine law.

制作客制化(自定义)的酒标已经成为近年来的风潮,有些人需要特别设计的酒标当成结婚贺礼,假日礼物和搞促销,通常都要由专门公司来制作以避免抵触到葡萄酒法律。

The increase in home wine making has contributed significantly, with hundreds of thousands of people around the world making their own wine instead of buying it. These people often make their own labels as well, or use online label companies. Homemade labels range from ink jet printing on copy paper and adhered with milk, to high quality designs printed on expensive label stock and printed with laser printers.

在家自制的酿酒法也逐渐风行,增加对酒标的需求,因为全世界都有成千上万的人自己酿酒而不是去买。这些人通常都自行设计酒标,或者使用线上的酒标设计服务。自制的酒标可以简单如喷墨打印在纸上再涂浆糊来贴,甚至是用高素质设计打印在昂贵的现成标签纸上,还是用激光打印机来印。

 

See also  参阅

  • International variety  国际品种

—— END ——

 

Source > Wikipedia at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wine_label

Translated by > BlogHost – hkTan

Word Count > approx.2022 words in English

 

Wine Law 葡萄酒法律

October 1, 2012 Leave a comment

Wine Law  葡 萄 酒 法 律

 

Wine laws are legislation regulating various aspects of production and sales of wine. The purpose of wine laws includes combating wine fraud, by means of regulated protected designations of origin, labelling practices and classification of wine, as well as regulating allowed additives and procedures in winemaking and viticulture. Legislation affecting all kinds of alcohol beverages, such as the legal drinking age and licensing practices related to distribution and sales, are usually not considered wine laws.

葡萄酒法律是監管生產與銷售葡萄酒各個方面的立法。葡萄酒法律的目的是打擊葡萄酒欺詐手段,通過管制受保護的原產地名銜,注明葡萄酒的標籤規則與級別,以及管制釀酒和葡萄栽培法的過程與准許的添加劑的辦法去監管。影響所有酒精飲料的立法如法定的飲酒年齡以及跟分銷與銷售有關的執照通常都不算是葡萄酒法律。

Wine is regulated by regional, state, and local laws. The laws and their relative rigidity differ for New World and Old World wines. Old World wines tend to have more stringent regulations than New World wines. Various wine laws, however, may include appellation-based regulations that cover boundaries as well as permitted grape varieties and winemaking practice-such as the French Appellation d’origine contrôlée (AOC), Italian Denominazione di origine controllata (DOC), Spanish Denominación de Origen (DO) and Portuguese Denominação de Origem Controlada (DOC). In some New World wine regions, such as the United States and Australia, the wine laws of the appellation systems (American Viticultural Area (AVA) and Australian Geographical Indication (GIs)) only pertain to boundary specifics and guaranteeing that a certain percentage of grapes come from the area listed on the wine label.

葡萄酒受到區域,州和當地法律的管制,這些法律與其相對僵硬的條例對新世界(世代)和舊世界(世代)的酒都有所不同。然而,各種葡萄酒法律可以包括以產區為本的法規,涵蓋了產區範圍,獲准的葡萄品種以及釀酒法如法國優良受管原產區的d’origine contrôlée(AOC),意大利最優質受管原產區的Denominazione di origine controllata(DOC),西班牙原產區的Denominación de Origen(DO)和葡萄牙受管原產區的Denominação de Origem Controlada(DOC)。在一些新世代葡萄酒的區域如美國和澳洲的產區系統(美國葡萄栽培園區(AVA)和澳洲地理迹象(GIs))的葡萄酒法律只涵蓋範圍的細則以及保證某個百分比的葡萄酒是產自酒標上列明的產區。

Some wine laws are established by local governments and are specific to that wine region, such as the 1954 municipal decree in the village of Châteauneuf-du-Pape that banned the overhead flying, landing or taking off of aviation in the commune which could negatively affect the region’s vineyards and wine production.

有些葡萄酒法律是當地政府制定的,而且只針對該葡萄酒生產區域而定,譬如Châteauneuf-du-Pape村在1954年頒佈的市政法令就禁止在該社區的航空活動,不得飛過,降落和起飛,因為會影響這個區域的葡萄園和產品的品質。

 

Contents  目錄

1. History  歷史

2. Comparative wine laws  可比較的葡萄酒法律

2.1 European Union  歐盟

2.2 United States  美國

3. See also  參閱

 

History  歷史

The oldest known wine laws were created by the Roman emperor Domitian, who c. 92 issued an edict that banned the plantings of any new vineyards in Italy and ordered the uprooting of half of the vineyards in Roman provinces. The purpose of the edict was to improve the food supply of Roman cities by increasing the production of cereals. There is evidence to suggest that Domitian’s edict was largely ignored in the Roman provinces. Domitian’s edict, while probably not followed to any greater extent, stayed in effect for 188 years until Emperor Probus repealed the measure in 280.

已知最古老的葡萄酒法律是由羅馬皇帝圖米斯燕(Domitian)開創的,他在公元92年下詔公告,禁止在意大利開墾任何新葡萄園,還下令銷毀羅馬省裡半數的葡萄園。這個諭旨的目的是要改善羅馬各城市的食物供應,增加穀物的產量。有證據顯示圖米斯燕的諭旨在大部份羅馬省份裡被當成耳邊風。雖然他的諭旨可能沒多少人要遵守,但還是維持有效188年,直到普羅卜司(Probus)在280年废除這項措施。

In the Holy Roman Empire, the oldest wine law was created by the Reichstag 1498 to combat wine fraud.

神聖羅馬帝國最早的葡萄酒法律是雷伊徹斯特(Reigchstag)在1498年訂立來對付葡萄酒欺詐行為。

In the wake of the Great French Wine Blight, which led to much wine fraud to supplement diminishing supply, wine laws were created in France to combat fraud. The French wine legislation later evolved to the AOC system, and inspired common European Union regulations.

在“法國葡萄酒大枯萎”期間,爲了填補日益減少的供應量,就出現很多造假的欺詐案,因此才在法國訂立葡萄酒法律來打擊欺詐行為。後來,法國的葡萄酒法規演變成公認優良產區(AOC)系統,也催生出共通的歐盟法規。

 

Comparative Wine Laws  可比較的葡萄酒法律

European Union  歐盟

In the European Union (EU), much of the wine law is common to all countries through the European Union wine regulations which is a part of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP). The CAP Wine Regime consists of a set of rules that govern the wine sector, with the aim of achieving a balanced and open market. The principal features are rules governing production, oenological practices and processes, classification of wines, a range of structural and support measures, detailed rules governing the description and labeling of wines, and imports from non-EU countries.

歐盟(EU)的大部份葡萄酒法律對所有國家都通用,歐盟的葡萄酒法規就是”共同農業政策”(CAP)中的一部份。”CAP葡萄酒制度”有一套規則來管制葡萄酒行業,目標是要建立起一個平衡與開放的市場,主要特點有管制生產的規則,釀酒做法與程序,葡萄酒級別,一連串結構性與支援措施,管制描述葡萄酒與酒標的規則細節,以及來自非歐盟國家的進口。

In addition to regulations that apply to all EU members, each EU country has its own framework of laws which govern aspects of winemaking such as the percentage of a grape to be included in a wine labeled with that variety name. For instance, in France wine professionals acribe to the Appellation d’Origine Contrôlée (AOC) system, which guarantees the origin of wine and other food products, such as cheese.

除了適用於所有歐盟成員國的法規以外,每個歐盟國都有自己的一套法律架構來管制制酒的各個方面,譬如酒標上注明的葡萄酒品種名稱需要有多少百分比的葡萄在內。舉例說,遵守“受管優質原產區”(AOC) 系統的法國葡萄酒專業業者就保證葡萄酒的原產正宗,也保證其他食物如奶酪的原產品質。

 

United States  美國

In the United States, the wine laws are more flexible than European standards in regards to regulations on what viticultural and winemaking practice are allowed in each wine region. The Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (BATF) defines and approves applications for regions to become American Viticultural Areas. This system was established in 1978 with the Augusta AVA in Missouri designated as the first recognized AVA on June 20, 1980. A sizable portion of American wine laws relate to wine labelling practices and include the stipulations that if an AVA name appears on the label that at least 85% of grapes used to produce the wine must come from that AVA. In addition to AVAs, every American state and county can produce wine and label it under their state/county wide appellation provided at least 75% of the grapes come from that area. The state of California and Texas have wine laws increasing the requirement to 100% and 85%, respectively, for use of a state-wide appellation on the wine label.

美國的葡萄酒法律就比歐洲的標準靈活得多,特別是每一個葡萄酒產區可准許哪一種釀酒與制酒做法的規定。美國煙酒槍械與爆炸物管理局(BATF)為“美國葡萄栽培園區”(AVA)定義,也批准這些地區的申請,這套系統在1978年建立,密蘇裡州(Missouri)的奧古斯塔(Augusta)AVA在1980年6月20日被指定為第一個公認的“美國葡萄栽培園區”。美國的葡萄酒法律有很多篇章都跟葡萄酒標籤有關,還明文規定說,如果AVA的名字在酒標上出現,那麼釀製出這瓶葡萄酒的葡萄要有至少85%是來自那個葡萄園區。除了AVA以外,每一個美國的州和郡(省和縣)可以給自家生產的葡萄酒貼上那個州/郡的原產地酒標,只要有至少75%的葡萄是產自那個產區就行。加利福尼亞州(California)和德克薩斯州(Texas)的葡萄酒法律甚至把要求提高到100%和85%,作為整個州的原產地酒標。

The appearance of grape variety (or varietal) and vintage year is also regulated by US wine labeling laws with requirements of at least 75% for the grape variety and 95% being harvested in that vintage year for either to appear on the wine label. The state of Oregon has increased the restriction for grape variety to 90%, with exception of Cabernet Sauvignon which under Oregon wine laws can have a minimum 75%. Additionally, all US wine must include the Surgeon General warning about dangers associated with alcohol consumption and a warning about the possible use of sulfites. Several wineries and importers have had conflicts with the BATF over these labeling requirements, one notable example being the importer Kermit Lynch. The criticism is typically centered on the absence of inclusion about the potential positive aspects of moderate wine consumption (such as the so-called “French paradox”) and that many wineries are forced to label their wines as “containing sulfites” when the decision to use sulfites are normally not made until long after wine labels have been ordered and the finished wine may contain no sulfites at all.

葡萄品種和收成年份的顯示也受到美國葡萄酒標籤法律的管制,要求至少有75%該品種的葡萄成份以及至少95%在那一年收成才能出現在酒標上。俄勒岡州(Oregon)把葡萄品種的要求提高到90%,除了赤霞珠(Cabernet Sauvignon)這個品種例外,俄勒岡州的葡萄酒法律允許這種酒只需至少75%就行。此外,所有美國葡萄酒標籤上必須加“外科總監”(公共健康總發言人)對喝酒精的警告字句,以及警告可能有用到的亞硫酸鹽。一些酒廠和進口商在標籤要求上跟BATF針鋒相對,比較突出的例子是Kermit Lynch進口商。批評通常都圍繞在沒考慮到適度喝酒的潛在好處上(比如所謂的“法國人悖論”),而且很多酒廠都被迫在他們的酒標上聲明“內含亞硫酸鹽”,因為成酒可能完全不含任何亞硫酸鹽,而且一般上都是在酒標已經預訂多時之後才來決定要加這個字眼。

 

See also  參閱

  • Alcohol law  酒精法

 

—— END ——

 

Source >Wikipedia at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wine_law

Translated by > BlogHost – hkTan

Word Count > approx.977 words in English

 

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