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Dermatology 皮肤科

February 29, 2012 Leave a comment

Dermatology  皮肤科

 

Dermatology is the branch of medicine dealing with the skin and its diseases, a unique specialty with both medical and surgical aspects. A dermatologist takes care of diseases, in the widest sense, and some cosmetic problems of the skin, scalp, hair, and nails.

皮肤科是处理与皮肤及其疾病的医学分支,有医疗和手术方面的专门性。皮肤科医生管疾病,广义的说,也包括一些表皮的问题如皮肤,头皮,头发和指甲的。

 

Contents  分类

1.  Etymology  词源

2.History  历史

3.Training  训练

4.Subspecialties  分科

4.1   Cosmetic dermatology  表层皮肤学

4.2   Dermatopathology  皮肤病理学

4.3   Immunodermatology  皮肤免疫学

4.4   Mohs surgery  莫氏手术

4.5   Pediatric dermatology  小儿皮肤科

4.6   Teledermatology  皮肤传媒学

5. Therapies  疗法

6. See also  另见

7. Notes  注

8.External links  外部链接

 

Etymology  词源

Coined in English 1819, the word dermatology originated in the form of the words dermologie (in French, 1764) and, a little later, dermatologia (in Latin, 1777). The term derives from the Greek “δέρματος” (dermatos), genitive of “δέρμα” (derma), “skin” (from “δέρω” – dero, “to flay”) + “-logy, “the study of”, a suffix derived from “λόγος” (logos), amongst others meaning “speech, oration, discourse, quote, study, calculation, reason”, in turn from “λέγω” – lego, “to say”, “to speak”.

1819年英语的造词,皮肤科这个字源于dermologie(1764年法国),之后演变成dermatologia(1777年的拉丁文)。这个名词源于希腊的“δέρματος” (dermatos),“δέρμα”(真皮),“皮肤 –(“δέρω”-dero,“去皮“-logy”)的研究“,后缀源自于”λόγος“(标识),其他意义有,”讲话,致辞,话语,语录,研究,计算,理论“,也源自于“λέγω”-标志“,说或说话“。

 

History  历史

Readily visible alterations of the skin surface have been recognized since the dawn of history, with some being treated, and some not. In 1801 the first great school of dermatology became a reality at the famous Hôpital Saint-Louis in Paris, while the first textbooks (Willan’s, 1798–1808) and atlases (Alibert’s, 1806–1814) appeared in print during the same period of time. In 1952, Dermatology was greatly advanced by Dr. Norman Orentreich’s pioneering work in hair transplantation.

有史以来,可见的表皮改造就已经受到承认,有些可以治疗,有些治不好。1801年,巴黎著名的医院Hopital Saint-Louis圣路易斯皮肤科首度成立了皮肤科学院,而第一本教科书(Willan著,1798至1808年)和地图集(Alibert著,1806至1814年),在同时期内打印出版。1952年,皮肤学在Norman Orentreich博士那个开创性的头发移植技术下获得长足的发展。

 

Training  訓練

After earning a medical degree (M.D. or D.O.), the length of training in the United States for a general dermatologist to be eligible for Board Certification by the American Academy of Dermatology, is a total of four years. This training consists of an initial medical or surgical intern year followed by a three-year dermatology residency. Following this training, one- or two- year post-residency fellowships are available in immunodermatology, phototherapy, laser medicine, Mohs micrographic surgery, cosmetic surgery or dermatopathology. For the past several years, dermatology residency positions in the United States have been one of the most competitive to obtain.

在获得医学学位(MD或DO)后,美国一般皮肤科医生的培训期是四年。训练包括初步的医疗或手术实习生课程以及为期三年的皮肤科駐院医师期。

駐院期过后,还有一或两年的院士身份供选修,专业领域有免疫学,光线疗法,激光医疗,Mohs莫式显微外科手术,美容手术或皮肤病理学。过去几年,美国的皮肤科駐院医师身份是其中一个竞争最激烈的职位。

 

Subspecialties  分科

Cosmetic dermatology  表层皮肤学

Dermatologists have been leaders in the field of cosmetic surgery. Some dermatologists complete fellowships in surgical dermatology. Many are trained in their residency on the use of botox, fillers, and laser surgery. Some dermatologists perform cosmetic procedures including liposuction, blepharoplasty, and face lifts. Most dermatologists limit their cosmetic practice to minimally invasive procedures. Despite an absence of formal guidelines from the American Board of Dermatology, many cosmetic fellowships are offered in both surgery and laser medicine.

皮肤科医师一直都是整容手术领域的佼佼者。一些皮肤科医生完成了整个皮肤科手术的院士训练。许多人都在駐院受训时学习使用肉毒杆菌,填充剂和激光手术。一些皮肤科医生执行整容手术,如抽脂,消眼袋和拉皮.大多数皮肤科医生的整容工作只限于轻微侵入性的步骤。尽管没有美国皮肤病委员会的正式指引,许多皮层整容院士都可以选修手术以及激光医学。

Dermatopathology  皮肤病理学

A dermatolopathologist is a pathologist or dermatologist who specializes in the pathology of the skin. This field is shared by dermatologists and pathologists. Usually a dermatologist or pathologist will complete one year of dermatopathology fellowship. This usually includes six months of general pathology, and six months of dermatopathology. Alumni of both specialties can qualify as dermatopathologists. At the completion of a standard residency in dermatology, many dermatologists are also competent at dermatopathology. Some dermatopathologists qualify to sit for their examinations by completing a residency in dermatology and one in pathology.

皮肤病理学家是一个专于皮肤病理的病理学医生或皮肤医生,这个领域由皮肤科专家和病理专家共享。一般上,皮肤科专家或病理学专家会在一年内完成皮肤病理学院士的训练。通常包括6个月的一般病理学和6个月的皮肤学训练。两个专科的校友都有资格成为皮肤病理科专家。在完成标准的駐院皮肤学训练之后,许多皮肤科专家也是合格的皮肤病理学专家。一些皮肤病理学专家在完成駐院的皮肤学与病理学的实习之后,就有资格应考。

Immunodermatology  皮肤免疫学

This field specializes in the treatment of immune-mediated skin diseases such as lupus, bullous pemphigoid, pemphigus vulgaris, and other immune-mediated skin disorders. Specialists in this field often run their own immunopathology labs.

这个领域专门治疗免疫力传导的皮肤疾病,如红斑狼疮,大疱性类天疱疮 ,寻常型天疱疮和其他免疫性介导的皮肤失衡状况。这方面的专家通常都会经营自己的免疫病理学医室。

Mohs Surgery  莫氏手术

The dermatologic subspecialty called Mohs surgery focuses on the excision of skin cancers using a tissue-sparing technique that allows intraoperative assessment of 100% of the peripheral and deep tumor margins developed in the 1930s by Dr. Frederic E. Mohs. The procedure is defined as a type of CCPDMA processing. Physicians trained in this technique must be comfortable with both pathology and surgery, and dermatologists receive extensive training in both during their residency. Physicians who perform Mohs surgery can receive training in this specialized technique during their dermatology residency, but many will seek additional training either through preceptorships to join the American Society for Mohs Surgery or through formal one- to two-year Mohs surgery fellowship training programs administered by the American College of Mohs Surgery.

这个被称为莫氏手术的皮肤病分科着重于切除皮肤癌,使用一个纤维组织保留的技术,允许外科手术进行时百分百评估周边和深层的皮肤癌幅度,这个技术是30年代的Frederic E.Mohs莫氏医生发展出来的。这个过程被定义为一种CCPDMA的处理法。接受这种技术培训的医生必须能够同时掌握病理和手术,而皮肤科医生也在駐院期间接受这两种学科全面的培训。执行莫氏手术的医生可以在駐院实习皮肤科期间接受这种技术的训练,但是很多人会通过指导传授方式寻求额外的培训,或通过美国莫氏手术学院提供的一到两年正式的莫氏手术院士训练课程,以便加入美国的莫氏协会。

Pediatric dermatology  小儿皮肤科

Physicians can qualify for this specialization by completing both a pediatric residency and a dermatology residency. Or they might elect to complete a post-residency fellowship. This field encompasses the complex diseases of the neonates, hereditary skin diseases or genodermatoses, and the many difficulties of working with the pediatric population.

完成駐院儿科医师和駐院皮肤科医师的医生就有资格接受这种专业训练。要不然他们可能会选择在駐院医师以后成为院士。这个领域包括了新生儿的复杂疾病,遗传性皮肤疾病或遗传皮肤病, 以及应付儿童的许多困难。

Teledermatology  皮肤传媒学

Teledermatology is a form of dermatology where telecommunication technologies are used to exchange medical information via all kinds of media (audio, visual and also data communication, but typically photos of dermatologic conditions) usually made by non-dermatologists for evaluation off-site by dermatologists). This subspecialty deals with options to view skin conditions over a large distance to provide knowledge exchange, to establish second-opinion services for experts or to use this for follow-up of individuals with chronic skin conditions.

皮肤传媒学是皮肤科的一种表达形式,通过电信技术利用各种媒介(音频,视讯和数据通信,最典型的是使用皮肤病照片)来交换医疗信息,信息通常都由非皮肤科专家提供给皮肤科专家作场外鉴定。这个分科处理各种远距离查看皮肤状况交流知识的媒介选项,好让专家们提供多一个意见的服务,或者当作慢性皮肤病人的后续观察方式。

 

Therapies  疗法

Therapies provided by dermatologists include, but not restricted to:

皮肤科专家提供的疗法包括但还不限于以下各项:

  •  Cosmetic filler injections

美容填充注射剂。

  •  Hair removal with laser or other modalities

用激光或其他方式脱毛。

  •  Hair transplantation – a cosmetic procedure practiced by many dermatologists.

  毛发移植–一个有许多皮肤科医师执业的美容程序。

  •  Intralesional treatment – with steroid or chemotherapy.

   瘤内治疗–类固醇或化疗。

  • Laser therapy – for both the management of birth marks, skin disorders (like vitiligo), Tattoo removal , and cosmetic resurfacing and rejuvenation.

  激光治疗–处理胎记,皮肤失常(如白癜风),洗眉和表层的磨平与更新。

  • Photodynamic therapy – for the treatment of skin cancer and precancerous growths.

  光线动力疗法–治疗皮肤癌和癌细胞增长前的问题。

  • Phototherapy – including the use of narrowband UVB, broadband UVB, psoralen and UVB.

  光疗–包括使用的窄带UVB,宽带UVB,补骨脂和UVB。

  • Tattoo removal with laser.

  用激光去除纹身

  • Tumescent liposuction – liposuction was invented by a gynecologist. A dermatologist (Dr. Jeffrey A. Klein) adapted the procedure to local infusion of dilute anesthetic called tumescent liposuction. This method is now widely practiced by dermatologists, plastic surgeons and gynecologists.

肿胀吸脂–吸脂手术是由妇科医生发明的。皮肤科医生(Jeffrey A.Klein杰弗  里A ·克莱因博士)使用局部稀麻醉药灌注的过程,称为肿胀吸脂。这个方法现在已经广泛被皮肤科医生,整形外科医生和妇科医生采用。

  • Cryosurgery – for the treatment of warts, skin cancers, and other dermatosis.

   冷冻手术–治疗疣,皮肤癌和其他皮肤病。

  • Radiation therapy – although rarely practiced by dermatologists, many dermatologist continue to provide radiation therapy in their office.

放射性治疗–虽然很少皮肤科医师在用,许多皮肤科医生还是在他们的办公室继续提供放射性治疗。

  • Vitiligo surgery – Including procedures like autologous melanocyte transplant, suction blister grafting and punch grafting.

  白癜风手术–程序包括自体黑色素细胞移植,嫁接和打孔嫁接吸疱。

  • Allergy testing – ‘Patch testing’ for contact dermatitis.

   过敏测试– “补丁测试”接触性皮炎。

  • Systemic therapies – including antibiotics, immunomodulators, and novel injectable products.

  全身治疗 — 包括抗生素,免疫调节剂,以及新颖的注射产品。

  • Topical therapies – dermatologists have the best understanding of the numerous products and compounds used topically in medicine.

  局部治疗 – 皮肤科医师最能理解众多医疗产品和化合物的用途。

  • Most dermatologic pharmacology can be categorized based on the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System, specifically the ATC code D.

大多数皮肤病药剂学可分为解剖治疗化学分类系统,特别是ATC代码D的依据。

 

See also  另见

  • History of dermatology   皮肤科的历史
  • List of dermatologists   皮肤科医生的名单
  • List of cutaneous conditions   侵犯皮肤条件的名单
  • Skin disease   皮肤病
  • Skin lesion   皮肤损伤

External links  外部链接

  • American History of Dermatology Society  美国皮肤病学会的历史
  • French Society for the History of Dermatology  法国社会历史的皮肤科
  • American Academy of Dermatology  美国科学院皮肤病
  • Society of Investigative Dermatology  侦查皮肤科学协会

 

Categories  分类

  • Dermatology   皮肤科
  • Medical specialties   医学专科
  • Subjects taught in medical school   医学院教导的科目
  • Greek loanwords   希腊外来词

 

Medical Specialties and Subspecialties   医学专科和分科

Surgery  手术

  • Cardiac surgery   心脏手术
  • Cardiothoracic surgery   心胸手术
  • Colorectal surgery   结肠直肠手术
  • General surgery   一般手术
  • Neurosurgery   神经手术
  • Ophthalmology   眼科
  • Oral and maxillofacial surgery   口腔上颌面手术
  • Orthopedic surgery   矫形骨科手术
  • Hand surgery   手部手术
  • Otolaryngology (ENT)   耳鼻喉科(耳鼻喉)
  • Pediatric surgery   小儿手术
  • Plastic surgery   整形手术
  • Surgical oncology   外科肿瘤学
  • Thoracic surgery   胸腔手术
  • Transplant surgery   移植手术
  • Trauma surgery   外伤手术
  • Urology   泌尿科
  • Vascular surgery   血管手术

Internal medicine  内科

  • Allergy / Immunology   过敏/免疫学
  • Andrology   男性生殖器病学
  • Angiology (Vascular Medicine)   血管学(脉管医疗)
  • Cardiology   心脏病学
  • Endocrinology   内分泌科
  • Gastroenterology   肠胃病学
  • Hepatology   肝脏病学
  • Geriatrics   老年病科
  • Gynaecology   妇科
  • Hematology   血液科
  • Infectious disease   传染性疾病
  • Nephrology   肾脏病学
  • Oncology   肿瘤病学
  • Pulmonology   肺病学
  • Rheumatology   风湿病学

Diagnostic  诊断

  •  Healthcare sciences   保健科学

   Clinical chemistry   临床化学

   Clinical immunology  临床免疫学

   Cytopathology   细胞病理学

   Medical microbiology  医疗微生物学

   Transfusion medicine  输血医学

  •  Radiology   放射线学

   Interventional radiology, (Nuclear medicine)   介入放射学(核医学)

  •  Pathology (Anatomical, Clinical)   病理学(解剖,临床)
  •  Clinical neurophysiology  临床神经生理学

Other specialties  其他专科

  • Addiction medicine  成瘾药物
  • Adolescent medicine  青少年医学
  • Anesthesiology   麻醉科
  • Dermatology  皮肤科
  • Disaster medicine  灾难医疗
  • Emergency medicine   急诊医疗
  • Family medicine   家庭医疗
  • General practice   一般行医实践
  • Gynaecology   妇科
  • Hospital medicine   医院用药
  • Intensive-care medicine   加护医疗
  • Medical genetics   学遗传学
  • Neurology   神经内科
  • Obstetrics   妇产科
  • Occupational medicine   职业医学
  • Pain management (Algiatry)   疼痛管理(Algiatry)
  • Palliative care   安抚医疗
  • Pediatrics (Neonatology)  儿科(新生儿科)
  • Physical medicine and rehabilitation (Physiatry)   物理医学与康复(康复科/理疗学)
  • Preventive medicine   预防医疗
  • Psychiatry   精神病学
  • Radiation oncology   放射肿瘤学
  • Reproductive medicine (Reproductive endocrinology and infertility, Reproductive surgery)   生殖医学(生殖内分泌学和不孕症,生殖手术)
  • Sexual medicine   性医学
  • Sleep medicine   睡眠医学
  • Sports medicine   运动医学
  • Transplantation medicine   移植医学
  • Tropical medicine (Travel medicine)   热带医学(旅行医学)
  • Urogynecology   妇科泌尿学

Others其他

  • Physician   医生

  MD   医学博士

  MBBS   内外全科医学士

  DO   骨科医生

  • Dentistry   牙科
  • Podiatry   足科
  • Veterinary medicine   兽医学
  • History of medicine   医学史
  • Medical education   医学教育
  • Medical school   医学院
  • Personalized medicine   个性化医疗

—— END ——

 

Source > Wikipedia at en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dermatology

Translated by > BlogHost — hkTan

Word Count > approx.1550 words in English

 

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