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Posts Tagged ‘english-chinese translation’

Coming Up 新动向

January 1, 2016 Leave a comment

Coming Up Next on This Blog

 

待 贴 新 文 与 动 向

Eng-Chi 2-way Translation

eBrochure or Multimedia Slideshow (combine ebook and powerpoint to be semi-interactive) samples to present business, company, services, products, activities, facilities, environment, shop, set up, achievements, portfolio, information, guides, knowledge, news, any other contents relevant and useful to readers and prospective customers, allow them to read online or download read offline (by QR code or short URL) refer and share on any devices (including smart phone and phablet), aim to replace printed brochure to harness the benefits and power of digital media and epublication. Samples (30-40 pages in English and Chinese) will show the various ways of presenting different types of trades, businesses and subject matters for target group of audiences to meet the purpose of circulating the brochures online and offline. Another content slide will be produced to shed(on Slideshare platform for content marketing, advertorial, infomercial, soft marketing) some lights on this indispensable marketing tool that will replace printed brochures soon, and poster board on the street will also turn digital (some even built in camera to calculate number of viewers 24×7). Big corporations had already saved much of their costs in printing pricey brochures and direct all customers from any country to download eBrochure or eBook on official website, and produce different or specific contents in multiple eBrochures and or video to keep readers entertained or informed, while the money saved in printing was channeled into online marketing, the hottest battleground now.

电彩页或多媒体幻片展样本(结合半互动的电子书和幻片动画)展现行业、公司、服务、产品、活动、设施、环境、店面、设计、成就、规模、资讯、导引、知识、新闻等等对读者和潜在顾客有用的内容,可以用任何配备(包括智能手机和平板/手板电脑)上线浏览或(用二维码或短网址)下载参阅和传阅,充分发挥数码媒体和电子出版的效能与威力。样本30-40页中文与英文版)会展示各类行业和主题针对不同读者或顾客群设计和编排的内容和版面,达致在线上发表线下传阅电彩页的目的和效果。另外会发表一份内容幻片Slideshare平台上分享知识,再认识这类日益重要长久以来都不可或缺的宣传工具(包括单张海报和半页传单),将会全面从马路转战到网路(网络码路)、硬纸换电纸、电台(垫抬高塔)变平台(公平宽广的舞台),路边的褪色广告板也都会变成色彩饱和鲜艳的数码视屏(还能用镜头全天候测量观众眼球)。许多大企业已经开始削减昂贵的彩页印刷开销鼓励各地客户上网下载各类讯息,而且还针对不同需求制作各种主题内容的电彩页亦或高清视频不断吸引读者的目光,省下的印刷费就转投到线上行销,当今最热门也是成本最低效益最高的管道,但技术含量高、细节多、受众群体细分精准。由于视频的制作成本高,多媒体幻片彩页是另一个图文并茂的最佳选项,而且成本只有视频的十分之一,随时可以加入视频和音乐在内再上传更新,值得中小企业推广采用。

Chinese to English translation samples for professional contents

中翻英 专业内容 短文样本

Video TV Ad Samples and Services

视频广告 样本与服务

Copy-edit/correct ESL Essay Writing Samples & Service

批閱修改 英文作文 寫作範例

SEO Content Dos and Don’ts (to be published)

SEO 搜优网文该做与不该做的事 (编写中)

Chinese Tourists Top Spenders of the world (English Reports)

Chinese Shoppers in Outbound Tour (Chinese Report)

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English to Chinese and Chinese to English translation transcreation samples for the following in the Gallery

下列中英雙向翻譯創譯 參閱樣本在展廳

Consumer Products Translation 消费品翻译 :

  • Skincare 护肤品
  • Haircare 护发品
  • Healthcare 保健
  • Healthfood 健康食品
  • Snacks (chocolate, biscuits, candies etc.) 零食(巧克力、饼干、糖果等)
  • Wine & Spirits 酒类
  • & more 其他产品

Property Sale Translation 房地产销售翻译 :

  • Project brochures 建案彩页
  • Specifications 建筑规格
  • Articles 房地产文章
  • & others 其他相关内容

Transport Translation 交通业翻译 :

  • International Airport & Airlines 国际机场与国际航空
  • Railway Operators & Train Stations 铁路公司与地铁站
  • Cruise Centre & Cruise Operators 邮轮中心与邮轮公司
  • & others 其他相关内容

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Restructuring of all posts for ease of finding and reading.

重整 所有贴文 方便查找浏览

Articles about brand-naming, SEO writing, translation errors & jokes.

有关品牌命名、SEO写法、翻译错误与笑话

Examples and discussion of transreation.

创译范例兼讨论

Samples for Content Writing, News Translate Re-write and other contents

写稿、供稿、新闻翻译重编及其他内容的样本

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It will take months to post all and may be posting till next year. Never compromise Quality for speed.

慢工出细活,求好不求快,品质优先。

You may enter your email (on the right panel) to be notified whenever new sample is posted.

Your email will be used for this purpose only, don’t need and will not use your email to do any marketing.

您可以(在右栏)输入电邮址追踪最新贴文即刻获知。

您的电邮址只限于此用途,于您方便,不需要也不会用您的电邮址去搞行销。

Eng-Chi 2-way Translation Service

Need help to translate or write something? 需要 翻译 写稿?

For product, service, notice, leaflet, brochure, signboard, poster, instruction, web page, web content, advertisements, any other forms of prints and publication

产品、服务、告示、传单、手册、布告、海报、须知、网页、广告、其他形式的出版物

Piecemeal job, Project-based, Term contract, Long-term freelancing outsource works and other flexible arrangements, all works and files to be delivered online or on cloud

單件個案、系列專案、定期外包、長期接案、靈活安排,所有文件和交易都在線上傳遞

Translation Copywriting Editing service 翻译 撰稿 编辑 服务总览

电邮询问 费用等详情 Email to inquire ask for quotation to know the cost among other details

Thank you for your time spent in browsing. You may follow via email provided in side panel. See you again.

感謝登門瀏覽。可以在右欄填入您的電郵自動追蹤新貼文新消息。歡迎再來。

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English-Chinese Translator 中英翻譯員

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Building Archi Translation 建筑翻译

September 1, 2013 1 comment

Lese-majesty 冒犯君主罪

June 18, 2012 Leave a comment

Lese-majesty  冒犯君主罪

Lese-majesty /ˌliːz ˈmædʒɨsti/[1] (French: lèse majesté [lɛz maʒɛste]; Law French, from the Latin laesa maiestas, “injured majesty”; in English, also lese majesty or leze majesty) is the crime of violating majesty, an offence against the dignity of a reigning sovereign or against a state.

Lese-majesty冒犯君主罪[1](法文: lèse majesté [lɛz maʒɛste];法国法律,拉丁文laesa maiestas,“受创的威严”,英语也用lese majesty或leze majesty)是违反国王陛下的罪名,是对一个统治主权的尊严或对一个国家的攻击。

This behavior was first classified as a criminal offence against the dignity of the Roman republic in Ancient Rome. In the Dominate, or Late Empire period the Emperors scrapped the Republican trappings of their predecessors and began to identify the state with their person.[2] Though legally the princeps civitatis (his official title, roughly ‘first citizen’) could never become a sovereign, as the republic was never officially abolished, emperors were deified as divus, first posthumously but by the Dominate period while reigning. Deified Emperors thus enjoyed the legal protection provided for the divinities of the state cult; by the time it was exchanged for Christianity, the monarchical tradition in all but name was well established.

这种行为第一次在古罗马时代因为有人冒犯罗马共和国的尊严而被列为刑事罪行。在帝政期或晚期帝国的时期,皇帝摆脱了前任共和党员的制约,开始把个人和国家的地位划上等号[2]。虽然在法律上princeps civitatis(皇帝的官衔,相当于现在的“第一公民”)不可能成为一个主权,共和国体制并未正式废除,但皇帝却被神化为(divus)神人,在加冕时首度追封帝政期的先帝。因此,神化了的皇帝就享有国家级被崇拜的神位,得到法律的保障;这时的神位取代了基督教,传统的君主制度除了名称以外,全部结构都建立得完善。

Narrower conceptions of offences against Majesty as offences against the crown predominated in the European kingdoms that emerged in the early medieval period. In feudal Europe, various real crimes were classified as lese-majesty even though not intentionally directed against the crown, such as counterfeiting because coins bear the monarch’s effigy and/or coat of arms.

在早期中世纪时期出现的反对欧洲国王陛下的冒犯行为被狭隘地解读,动辄得咎。在欧洲的封建期间,各种实际犯罪的罪过都被当成是冒犯君主的威严,即使不是故意针对王权而犯,比如造假,只因为假硬币上印了君主的肖像亦或臂章。

However, since the disappearance of absolute monarchy, this is viewed as less of a crime, although similar, more malicious acts could be considered treason. By analogy, as modern times saw republics emerging as great powers, a similar crime may be constituted, though not under this name, by any offence against the highest representatives of any state.

然而,随着绝对君主专制的消失,这种行为不再被当成是犯罪,虽然类似和更多恶意的行为可能被视为叛国罪。打个比方,现代的共和国体制兴起成为强权,类似的罪行或许不再以这种名义定罪,但却还是冒犯了国家最高代表(比如藐视最高法院或法官)。

 

Contents  目录

1 Current lese-majesty laws  当前的冒犯君主罪

1.1 Europe  欧洲

1.1.1 Denmark  丹麦

1.1.2 Netherlands  荷兰

1.1.3 Spain  西班牙

1.1.4 Greece  希腊

1.2 Morocco  摩洛哥

1.3 Thailand  泰国

1.4 Others  其他

2 Former laws  之前的法律

2.1 United Kingdom  英国

3 See also  另见

4 References  参考文献

5 External links  外部链接

 

Current Lese-majesty Laws  当前的冒犯君主法律

Europe  欧洲

Further information: Freedom of speech by country: Germany and Poland

更多讯息:言论自由国家分类:德国和波兰

In Germany, Switzerland,[3] and Poland it is illegal to insult foreign heads of state publicly.

在德国,瑞士[3],和波兰,公开侮辱外国的国家元首是非法的。

On 5 January 2005, Marxist tabloid publisher Jerzy Urban was sentenced by a Polish court to a fine of 20,000 złoty (about €5000 or US$6,200) for having insulted Pope John Paul II, a visiting head of state.[4]

2005年1月5日,马克思派的小报出版商Jerzy Urban被波兰法院判处罚款20000zloty(约€5000欧元或6,200美元),因为他侮辱教皇约翰保罗二世这位到访的国家元首。[4]

On 26–27 January 2005, 28 human rights activists were temporarily detained by the Polish authorities for allegedly insulting Vladimir Putin, a visiting head of state. The activists were released after about 30 hours and only one was actually charged with insulting a foreign head of state.[5]

2005年1月26日至27日,28名人权活跃份子被波兰当局暂时扣留,因为他们公然侮辱普京这位到访的国家元首。约30个小时之后,这些活跃份子都获得释放,只有一人实际上被控侮辱外国国家元首。[5]

In October 2006, a Polish man was arrested in Warsaw after expressing his dissatisfaction with the leadership of Lech and Jarosław Kaczyński by passing gas loudly.[6]

2006年10月,一名波兰男子在华沙被捕,因为不满领导人Lech和Jaroslaw Kaczyrisjki的车队大声排放烟雾。[6]

Denmark  丹麦

In Denmark, the monarch is protected by the usual libel paragraph (§ 267 of the penal code which allows for up to four months of imprisonment), but §115[7] allows for doubling of the usual punishment when the regent is target of the libel. When a queen consort, queen dowager or the crown prince is the target, the punishment may be increased by 50%. There are no historical records of §115 having ever been used, but in March 2011, Greenpeace activists who unfurled a banner at a dinner at the 2009 United Nations Climate Change Conference were charged under this section.[8] They received minor sentences for other crimes, but were acquitted of the charge relating to the monarch.[9]

在丹麦,君主通常都受到诽谤条文的保护(刑法§ 第267条允许最多4个月的监禁),但是,当摄政成为诽谤目标时,§第115条[7]就允许加倍处罚。当王后,皇太后或王储成为诽谤目标时,处罚可能会增加50%。历史记录里还没使用过§第115条,但是,在2011年3月,绿色和平活跃份子在2009年联合国气候变化大会的晚宴上展开布条之后,他们就在这个条款下被控诉[8]。他们的其他罪行都获得轻判,而跟君主有关的指控都获得无罪释放。[9]

Netherlands  荷兰

In October 2007, a 47-year-old man was fined €400 for, amongst other things, lese-majesty in the Netherlands when he called Queen Beatrix a “whore” and described several sexual acts he would like to perform on her to a police officer.[10]

2007年10月,一名47岁的男子被罚款€400欧元,除其他事项外,主要是冒犯荷兰君主,因为他称呼荷兰女王Beatrix为“妓女”,还对警务人员描述一些他想要跟女王性交的几种方式。[10]

Spain  西班牙

The Spanish satirical magazine El Jueves was fined for violation of Spain’s lese-majesty laws after publishing an issue with a caricature of the Prince of Asturias and his wife engaging in sexual intercourse on the cover in 2007.[11]

西班牙的讽刺杂志“El Jueves”因为违反了西班牙的冒犯君主法而被罚款,该杂志在2007年的某一期的杂志封面刊登了一则漫画描绘Asturias王子和他的妻子性交的画面。[11]

Greece  希腊

The 14th article of the Constitution of Greece makes it an offence for the press to insult the President of Greece (as well as Christianity and any other religion recognized by the state).[12]

希腊宪法第14条规定报章侮辱希腊总统是犯法的行为(还包括侮辱基督教和国家认可的其他宗教)。[12]

Morocco  摩洛哥

Moroccans are routinely prosecuted for statements deemed offensive to the King. The penal code states that the minimum sentence for a statement made in private (i.e.: not broadcast) is imprisonment for 1 year. For a public offense to the King, the minimum sentence is 3 years. In both cases, the maximum is 5 years.[13]

摩洛哥人不时都有人因为被认定发表冒犯国王的声明而被起诉。刑法规定私下言论(即:不广播)的最低刑期是1年监禁。公开冒犯国王的最低刑期是3年。两种罪同时触犯的话,最高刑期是5年。[13]

The case of Yassine Belassal[14] The Fouad Mourtada Affair, and Nasser Ahmed (a 95 year-old who died in jail after being convicted of lese-majesty), revived the debate on these laws and their applications. In 2008, an 18 year-old was charged with “breach of due respect to the king” for writing “God, Country, Barca” on a school board, in reference to his favorite football club. The national motto of Morocco is “God, Country, King”.

最近,Yassine Belassal[14]在The Fouad Mourtada的事件中以及Nasser Almed的案例(95岁的囚犯因为冒犯君主被定罪死在狱中)使到这些法律及其应用的辩论再度展开。2008年,一名18岁青年被控“违反对君主不敬”的罪名,只因为他在学校布告栏上写“上帝,国家,Barca(巴卡球队)”的字,指的是他最喜欢的足球俱乐部。而摩洛哥的国家格言应该是“上帝,国家,国王”。

In February 2012, 18 years old Walid Bahomane was convicted for posting two mild cartoons of the king on Facebook. The procès-verbal cites two facebook pages and an IBM computer being seized as evidence. Walid is officially prosecuted for “touching the sacralities”.[15]

2012年2月,18岁的Walid Bahomane因为在脸书上张贴了两张温和的泰王卡通图片而被判罪。官方说法是用两篇脸书上的记录和没收的IBM电脑为证据,正式控告Walid“触碰到神圣的品德”。

Thailand  泰国

Thailand’s Criminal Code has carried a prohibition against lese-majesty since 1908.[16] In 1932, when Thailand’s monarchy ceased to be absolute and a constitution was adopted, it too included language prohibiting lese-majesty. The 2007 Constitution of Thailand, and all seventeen versions since 1932, contain the clause, “The King shall be enthroned in a position of revered worship and shall not be violated. No person shall expose the King to any sort of accusation or action.” Thai Criminal Code elaborates in Article 112: “Whoever defames, insults or threatens the King, Queen, the Heir-apparent or the Regent, shall be punished with imprisonment of three to fifteen years.” Missing from the Code, however, is a definition of what actions constitute “defamation” or “insult”.[17] From 1990 to 2005, the Thai court system only saw four or five lese-majesty cases a year. From January 2006 to May 2011, however, more than 400 cases came to trial, an estimated 1,500 percent increase.[18] Observers attribute the increase to increased polarization following the 2006 military coup and sensitivity over the elderly king’s declining health.[19]

泰国刑法从1908年起就禁止冒犯君主[16]。1932年,当泰国的君主制不再有绝对权力时,通过的新宪法也收纳了禁止冒犯君主的条文。2007年的泰国宪法以及1932年起至今的所有十七个版本里都有这样的条文:“国王应该以备受尊敬的崇拜地位登基,而且地位不得侵犯。任何人都不得对国王作出任何指控或行动。”泰国的刑事法典第112条阐述:“任何诽谤,侮辱或威胁国王,王后,以及其指定继承人或摄政,应处以三到十五年的监禁。”然而,刑法中遗漏的部份是如何定义什么样的行为会构成“诽谤”或“侮辱”[17]。从1990年到2005年,泰国法院系统每年只处理四个或五个冒犯君主的案件。然而,从2006年1月至2011年5月,共有400多个案件待审,估计增加了1500%[18]。观察员把这个增加的幅度归咎于2006年的军事政变以及老国王的健康每况愈下引起的两极化社会。[19]

Neither the King nor any member of the Royal Family has ever personally filed any charges under this law. In fact, during his birthday speech in 2005, King Bhumibol Adulyadej encouraged criticism: “Actually, I must also be criticized. I am not afraid if the criticism concerns what I do wrong, because then I know.” He later added, “But the King can do wrong,” in reference to those he was appealing to not to overlook his human nature.[19] The Constitution does not provide the legal right for the royal family to defend themselves; accordingly they cannot file grievances on their own behalf.[citation needed] Instead, the responsibility has been granted to the state and to the public. Cases are often filed by state authorities or by individuals, and anyone may take action against anyone else. In one notable incident during the 2005–2006 political crisis, deposed Prime Minister Thaksin Shinawatra and his political opponent Sondhi Limthongkul filed charges of lese-majesty against each other. Thaksin’s alleged lese-majesty was one of the stated reasons for the Thai military’s 2006 coup.[20][21][22][23]

国王或任何王室成员都未曾用这条法律亲自告状提控任何人。事实上,Bhumibol Adulyadej莆湄博国王在他的2005年生日上还鼓励批评,他说:“其实,我也必须被批评。我不怕批评我做错了什么事,这样我才能知道。”接着他又补充说,“但是国王也会做错事”,呼吁那些崇拜他的人不要忽略他也是个人。”宪法并没有为王室提供合法权利去为自己辩护;因此他们不能自行控告。相反的,责任在政府和公众手上。案件往往都由国家机关或个人提告,任何人都可以用这条法律去控告任何人。值得一提的一件事发生在2005-2006年的政治危机,被废黜的总理(Thaksin Shinawatra)达信和他的政治对手Sondhi Limthongkul用冒犯君主罪互相起诉对方。达信涉嫌的冒犯君主罪是2006年泰国军方发动政变声明的其中一个理由。[20][21][22][23]

Social activists such as Sulak Sivaraksa were charged with the crime in the 1980s and 1990s because they allegedly criticized the king; Sulak was eventually acquitted.[24]

在20世纪80年代和90年代的社会活跃份子如Sulak Sivaraksa也被控这样的罪名,因为他们涉嫌批评国王; 最终Sulak还是获得无罪释放。[24]

Frenchman Lech Tomasz Kisielewicz allegedly committed lese-majesty in 1995 by making a derogatory remark about a Thai princess while on board a Thai Airways flight. Although in international airspace at the time, he was taken into custody upon landing in Bangkok and charged with offending the monarchy. He was detained for two weeks, released on bail, and acquitted after writing a letter of apology to the king, and deported.[citation needed] In March 2007, Swiss national Oliver Jufer was convicted of lese-majesty and sentenced to 10 years in jail for spray-painting graffiti on several portraits of the king while drunk in Chiang Mai;[25] he was pardoned by the king on 12 April 2007 and deported.[26]

1995年,法国人Lech Tomasz Kisielewicz涉嫌在泰国航空的班机上发表诋毁泰国公主的言论而犯了冒犯君主罪。虽然当时是在国际航空领域里,他在飞机降落曼谷时马上被羁押,然后被控冒犯君主罪。他被拘留了两周,获得保释,写了一封道歉信给国王才获得无罪释放,并驱逐出境。2007年3月,瑞士人Oliver Jufer因为在清迈喝醉酒[25],在几幅国王的人像照上喷漆涂鸦,被判处10年徒刑,当年4月12日国王赦免他,然后驱逐出境。[26]

In March 2008, Colonel Watanasak Mungkijakarndee of Bang Mod police station filed a case against Jakrapob Penkhair a politician and spokesman for former premier Thaksin Shinawatra, for public statements threatening violence and national security made on the Foreign Correspondents’ Club of Thailand (FCCT) stage in August 2007.[27] In 2008 BBC South-East Asia correspondent and FCCT vice-president Jonathan Head was accused of lese-majesty three times by Col. Watanasak. Col. Watanasak filed new charges and evidence highlighting a conspiracy connecting Thaksin Shinawatra, Jakrapob Penkhair and Jonathan Head to Veera Musikapong at the FCCT. Jonathan Head was subsequently transferred by the BBC to Turkey.[28] Prime Minister Abhisit Vejajiva has still not made a decision as to whether prosecutors should continue proceedings against Jakrapob Penkhair.

2008年3月,Bang Mod警局的Watanasak Mungkijakarndee上校提告政治家Jakrapob Penkhair和前总理达信的发言人在2007年8月公开发表言论以暴力和国家安全威胁泰国的外国记者俱乐部(FCCT)[27]。2008年,BBC的东南亚特派记者和FCCT副总裁Jonathan Head被Watanasak上校连续三次指控冒犯君主。Watanasak上校提出新的指控和证据凸显达信,Jakrapob Penkhair和Jonathan Head三人跟FCCT的Veera Musikapong有关联的阴谋。后来Jonathan Head被英国广播公司(BBC)调到土耳其去[28]。总理Abhisit Vejajiva阿比西还未决定检察官是否应该继续起诉Jakrapob Penkhair。

In September 2008, Harry Nicolaides[29] from Melbourne, Australia, was arrested at Bangkok’s international airport[30] and charged with lese-majesty, for an offending passage in his self published book Verisimilitude. After pleading guilty, he was sentenced to three years in jail[31] but then pardoned by the king, released, and deported.[32]

2008年9月,澳洲墨尔本的Harry Nicolaides[29]在曼谷国际机场被捕[30],被控冒犯君主的罪,因为他在自行出版的一本书“Verisimilitude-逼真的事物”里有冒犯的段落。他认罪后被判处3年有期徒刑,后来也被国王赦免释放,并驱逐出境。[32]

On 29 April 2010, Thai businessman Wipas Raksakulthai was arrested following a post to his Facebook account allegedly insulting Bhumibol.[33] The arrest was reportedly the first lese-majesty charge against a Thai Facebook user.[34] In response, Amnesty International named Wipas Thailand’s first prisoner of conscience in nearly three decades.[35]

2010年4月29日,泰国商人Wipas Raksakulthai在他的Facebook脸书页面上发表涉嫌侮辱莆湄博国王的言论之后就被捕[33]。这是第一次有泰国的脸书用户因为冒犯君主罪而被捕[34]。因此,国际特赦组织把Wipas命名为三十年来泰国的第一位良知囚犯。[35]

On 27 May 2011, an American citizen, Joe Gordon (Lerpong Wichaikhammat), was arrested on charges he insulted the country’s monarchy, in part by posting a link on his blog to a banned book about the ailing king. Gordon had lived in the United States for thirty years before returning to Thailand. He is also reportedly suspected of translating, from English into Thai, portions of The King Never Smiles – an unauthorized biography of King Bhumibol Adulyadej – and posting them online along with articles he wrote that allegedly defame the royal family.[36][37]After being denied bail eight times, a shackled–and–handcuffed Gordon said in court on 10 October, “I’m not fighting in the case. I’m pleading guilty, sirs.”[38] On 8 December 2011] a court in Thailand sentenced Joe Gordon to two and a half years in prison for defaming the country’s royal family by translating excerpts of a locally banned biography of the king and posting them online. [www.cbsnews.com/8301-202_162-57339098/thailand-jails-u.s-man-for-insulting-king/]

2011年5月27日,一名美国公民,Joe Gordon(泰国原名为Lerpong Wichaikhammat)被逮捕,他在自己的博客上的一篇贴文中链接到一本关于生病的泰王的禁书而被控局部性地侮辱国家的君主。Gordon在美国住了三十年才回到泰国。据报道,他也涉嫌把泰王未授权的自传“The King Never Smiles-未曾笑过的国王”中的一部份从英文翻译成泰文,连同他自己写的也涉嫌诋毁王室的文章都一起贴在网页上[36[37]。他被拒绝保释八次之后,10月10日那天,手脚被镣的Gordon戈登在法院说:“我不想再辩护。我认罪,大人们。”[38] 2011年12月8日,泰国法庭判处戈登两年半徒刑,罪名是翻译本地禁止的国王传记中的摘录张贴在网上诽谤了国家的王室。[www.cbsnews.com/8301-202_162-57339098/thailand-jails-us-man-for-insulting-king/]

In September 2011, computer programmer Surapak Puchaieseng was arrested, detained and had his computer confiscated after accused of insulting the Thai royal family on Facebook – his arrest marked the first lèse majesté case since prime minister Yingluck Shinawatra was elected.[39] The 10 October AP report on Joe Gordon’s plea adds that “Yingluck’s government has been just as aggressive in pursing the cases as its predecessors.”

2011年9月,软件程序员Surapak Puchaieseng被逮捕,拘留,电脑被没收,被控在脸书上侮辱泰国王室家族-他的被捕是瑛乐Yinluck Shinawatra当选总理之后第一起冒犯君主案[39]。10月10日美联社报道戈登的呼吁时补充说:“瑛乐的政府跟前任政府一样在处理这种案件时咄咄逼人。”

Others  其他

In January, 2009 there was a diplomatic incident between Australia and Kuwait over an Australian woman being held for allegedly insulting the Emir of Kuwait during a fracas with Kuwaiti Immigration authorities.[40]

在2009年1月,澳洲和科威特之间发生了一件外交纠纷,一名澳洲女人涉嫌在跟科威特移民机关的官员争吵时侮辱科威特国王。[40]

Even though the Supreme Leader of Iran is not a king, there are laws against insulting the station of the Supreme Leader.

尽管伊朗最高领袖不是一个国王,还是有国家法律明文禁止侮辱最高领袖。

 

Former Laws  之前的法律

United Kingdom  英国

In Scotland, section 51 of the Criminal Justice and Licensing (Scotland) Act 2010 abolished the common law criminal offences of sedition and ‘leasing-making’. The latter offence, also known as ‘lease /ˈliːz/ making’, was considered an offence of lese-majesty or making remarks critical of the Monarch of the United Kingdom. It had not been prosecuted since 1715.[41]

在苏格兰,刑事司法及牌照(苏格兰)法令2010第51节废除了普通法中的刑事罪行如煽动叛乱和”造谎“。后者的罪行被称为“造谎“,也被认为是冒犯君主罪或放话批评英国王室。不过从1715年起就没人被起诉过。[41]

 

See also  另见

  • Blasphemy  亵渎
  • Flag desecration  沾污国旗
  • Insubordination  犯上
  • Mutiny  兵变
  • Sedition  煽动
  • Treason  叛国

 

References  参考文献

[1] ^ “lese-majesty”. Oxford English Dictionary. Oxford University Press. 2nd ed. 1989.

^ “冒犯君主罪”牛津英文字典。牛津大学出版社第二版1989。

[2] ^ TheFreeDictionary.com, “Lese majesty” TheFreeDictionary.com, Columbia Encyclopedia, retrieved 22 September 2006

^ 免费字典网站,“冒犯君主罪”,哥伦比亚百科全书,2006年9月22日索取资料。

[3] ^ Swiss Penal Code , SR/RS 311.0 (E·D·F·I), art. 296 (E·D·F·I)

^ 瑞士刑法,SR/RS 311.0(E.D.F.I),art.296(E.D.F.I)

[4] ^ IFEX.org, “Criminal Defamation Laws Hamper Free Expression” IFEX.org, retrieved 22 September 2006

^ IFEX组织网站,“刑事毁谤法律钳制言论自由”,2006年9月22日索取资料。

[5] ^ NEWS.BBC.co.uk, “Sensitive heads of state”, retrieved 30 January 2008

^ 英国广播电台新闻网站,“敏感的国家元首”,208年1月30日索取资料。

[6] ^ Ananova.com, “Police hunt farting dissident” ananova.com, retrieved 31 August 2008

^ Ananova网站,“警察追捕放屁的异议份子”,2008年8月31日索取资料。

[7] ^ Resinformation.dk  ^ 丹麦网站Resinformation.dk

[8] ^ “COP-15 activists in lèse majesté case”. Politiken (Copenhagen). 1 March 2011. Retrieved 1 March 2011.

^“COP-冒犯君主罪的15名活跃份子”。Politiken报(哥本哈根)2011年3月1日报导。2011年3月1日索取资料。

[9] ^ Københavns Byret (22-08-2011). Greenpeace-aktivister idømt betinget fængsel i 14 dage. (in Danish).

^ Københavns Byret (2011年8月22日)。绿色和平活跃份子(丹麦文)

[10] ^ nrc.nl – Binnenland – Boete voor majesteitsschennis

[11] ^ “Spain royal sex cartoonists fined”. BBC. 13 November 2007. Retrieved 13 November 2007.

^ “西班牙王室性漫画的画家被罚款“。英国广播电台2007年11月13日报道。2007年11月13日索取资料。

[12] ^ http://www.ekloges.gr/syntagmaDetails.asp?pageid=3&langid=1&ArthroID=16

[13] ^ PCB.UB.es

[14] ^ BarcelonaReporter.com  ^ 巴塞罗那报道网站

[15] ^ “Busted for Posting Caricatures of the King on Facebook”. 8 February 2012. Retrieved 9 February 2012.

^ “破获在脸书上张贴的国王漫画”。2012年2月8日。2012年2月9日索取资料。

[16] ^ NEWS.BBC.co.uk ^ 英国广播电台新闻网站

[17] ^ NEWS.BBC.co.uk ^ 英国广播电台新闻网站

[18] ^ a b Todd Pitman and Sinfah Tunsarawuth (27 March 2011). “Thailand arrests American for alleged king insult”. Retrieved 27 May 2011.

^ a b Todd Pitman and Sinfah Tunsarawuth (2011年3月27日)。“泰国当局逮捕涉嫌侮辱泰王的美国人”。2011年5月27日索取资料。

[19] ^ “Royal Birthday Address: ‘King Can Do Wrong'”. National Media. 5 December 2005. Retrieved 26 September 2007.

^ “皇家生日发言:“国王也会做错”。国家媒体,2005年12月5日报导。2007年9月26日索取资料。

[20] ^ Asiaweek, A Protective Law, 3 December 1999 vol.45 no.28

^ 亚洲周刊,“保护性法律”,1999年12月3日45集第28本。

[21] ^ Colum Murphy, “A Tug of War for Thailand’s Soul”, Far Eastern Economic Review, September 2006

^ Colum Murphy,“泰国灵魂的拔河赛”,远东经济评论,2006年9月。

[22] ^ AFP, Thai coup leader says new PM within two weeks, 19 September 2006

^ 法新社,“泰国政变领袖说两星期内选出新总理”,2006年9月19日。

[23] ^ Time, World Notes Thailand: Not Fit for a King, 15 September 1986

^ 时报周刊,世界栏,“泰国不适合国王”,1986年9月15日。

[24] ^ “A Critic May Now Look at a King”, Macan-Markar, Marwaan, The Asian Eye, 18 May 2005

^ “评论家或许可以看看国王”,Macan-Marker,Marwaan撰,亚洲眼,2005年5月18日。

[25] ^ BBC News, Sensitive heads of state, 29 March 2007

^ 英国广播电台新闻,“敏感的国家元首”,2007年3月29日报导。

[26] ^ BBC News, Thailand’s king pardons Swiss man, 12 April 2007

^ 英国广播电台新闻,“泰王赦免瑞士人的罪”。2007年4月12日。

[27] ^ The Nation (NationMultimedia.com): Police to summon Jakrapob for allegedly lese majeste

^ 国家(国家多媒体网站):“警察召集涉嫌触犯冒犯君主罪的Jakrapob。”

[28] ^ Colonel Watanasak filed further charges against BBC reporter at CSD, Manager Online, 23 December 2008

^ “Watanasak上校在CSD提告BBC记者”,管理在线,2008年12月23日。

[29] ^ Australian man refused bail for insulting Thai King, ABC Online, 3 September 2008

^ “澳洲人拒绝侮辱泰王的保释”,ABC在线,2008年9月3日。

[30] ^ Australian arrested in Thailand for lese-majeste

^ 澳洲人在泰国因为冒犯君主罪被逮捕。

[31] ^ NEWS.BBC.co.uk, Writer jailed for Thai ‘insult’

^ 英国广播电台新闻网站,“作家在泰国因为侮辱罪而坐牢”

[32] ^ NEWS.BBC.co.uk, Thailand frees Australian writer

^ 英国广播电台新闻网站,“泰国释放澳洲作家”。

[33] ^ “Thai man arrested for Facebook post about monarchy”. 30 April 2010. Retrieved 15 May 2011.

^ “泰国人在脸书上张贴有关君主的内容被捕”。2010年4月30日。2011年5月15日索取资料。

[34] ^ “Govt cracks down on social networking forums”. Bangkok Post. 3 July 2010. Retrieved 15 May 2011.

^ “政府镇压社交网络论坛”。泰国邮报,2010年7月3日报导。2011年5月15日索取资料。

[35] ^ Pravit Rojanaphruk (14 May 2011). “Amnesty International names Thailand’s first ‘prisoner of conscience'”. The Nation. Retrieved 15 May 2011.

^ Pravit Rojanaphruk (20115月14日)撰。“国际特赦组织称泰国为第一个良知的囚犯”。国家报。2011年5月15日索取资料。

[36] ^ “Joe Gordon, Colorado Man Living In Thailand, Arrested For Allegedly Insulting Monarchy”. Huffington Post. 27 May 2011.

^ “住在泰国的科罗拉多人Joe Gordon涉嫌侮辱君主被捕”。Huffinton邮报。2011年5月27日。

[37] ^ “Freedom Alert: American arrested in Thailand, accused of criticizing monarchy”. Freedom House.

^ “自由警报:美国人在泰国被指责批评君主被捕”。自由之家。

[38] ^ “Joe Gordon pleads guilty to lese majeste charges”. Asian Correspondent. AP. 10 October 2011. “BANGKOK (AP) – Hoping for a lenient sentence, a shackled U.S. citizen pleaded guilty Monday to charges of defaming Thailand’s royal family, a grave crime in this Southeast Asian kingdom that is punishable by up to 15 years in jail.”

^ “Joe Gordon为冒犯君主罪认罪”。亚洲通讯,太平洋,2011年10月10日。“曼谷(太平洋)—希望轻判,戴上镣铐的美国公民在星期一因为被控毁谤泰国王室而认罪,这个重大罪名可以在这个东南亚的王国里被判处最长15年的徒刑”。

[39] ^ “Thai Computer Programmer Detained After Criticizing Monarchy on Facebook”. Freedom House.

^ “泰国电脑程序员在脸书上批评君主之后被拘留”。自由之家。

[40] ^ SMH.com.au ^ 澳洲SMH网站

[41] ^ “Justice Committee Official Report (see column 2942)”. Scottish Parliament. 20 April 2010. Retrieved Feb 2011.

^ “公正委员会官方报告(见2942栏)”。苏格兰国会,2010年4月20日。2011年2月索取资料。


Categories  分类

  • Crimes  罪行
  • Monarchy  帝制
  • French legal terms  法国法律名词

 

——- END ——

 

Source > Wikipedia at en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lese_majeste

Translated by > BlogHost — hkTan

Word Count > approx. 2900 words in English

 

Yellow Dog Contract 黄犬合同

June 6, 2012 Leave a comment

Yellow-dog Contract  黄犬合同

 

A yellow-dog contract (a yellow-dog clause[1] of a contract, or an ironclad oath) is an agreement between an employer and an employee in which the employee agrees, as a condition of employment, not to be a member of a labor union. In the United States, such contracts were, until the 1930s, widely used by employers to prevent the formation of unions, most often by permitting employers to take legal action against union organizers. In 1932, yellow-dog contracts were outlawed in the United States under the Norris-LaGuardia Act.[2][3]

黄犬合同(合同中的黄犬条款[1],或铁皮誓言)是雇主和雇员之间的协议,雇员同意不成为工会会员是受雇条件之一。在美国,直到20世纪30年代,这样的合同广泛地被雇主用来预防工会的成立,最常见的就是允许雇主采取法律行动对付工会筹组人。1932年,黄犬合同在美国的Norris-LaGuardia法令中被禁止[2][3]。

The term yellow-dog clause can also have a different meaning: non-compete clauses within or appended to a non-disclosure agreement to prevent an employee from working for other employers in the same industry.[4]

黄犬条款这个名词也可以有不同的含义: 内部不竞争条款或附加在不披露协议之上,防止雇员为同业的雇主工作[4]。

 

Contents  目录

  • Origin of term and brief history  词源与简史
  • Yellow-dog union  黄犬工会
  • See also  另见
  • References  参考文献

 

Origin of Term and Brief History  词源与简史

In the 1870s, a written agreement containing a pledge not to join a union was commonly referred to as the “Infamous Document”. This strengthens the belief that American employers in their resort to individual contracts were consciously following English precedents. This anti-union pledge was also called an “iron clad document”, and from this time until the close of the 19th century “iron-clad” was the customary name for the non-union promise. Beginning with New York in 1887, sixteen states wrote on their statute books declarations making it a criminal act to force employees to agree not to join unions.[citation needed] The Congress of the United States incorporated in the Erdman Act of 1898 a provision relating to carriers engaged in interstate commerce.

在19世纪70年代,书面协议里包含了不加入工会的承诺通常都被称为“不名誉文件”。这种文件加强了一个信念,那就是美国雇主在诉诸个人合同时,有意追随英国的先例。这种反工会的承诺也被称为“铁皮文件”,并从这个时候起直到19世纪结束为止,“铁皮”是承诺不加入工会的的俗称。1887年从纽约开始,十六个州在他们的法典中明文宣告,迫使雇员同意不加入工会的协议是一种罪行。美国议会在1898年订立的Erdman厄尔曼法令收纳了跟州际贸易的运营商有关的条文。

During the last decade of the 19th century and the opening years of the 20th, the individual, anti-union promise declined in importance as an instrument in labor warfare. Its novelty had worn off; workers no longer felt themselves morally bound to live up to it and union organizers, of course, wholly disregarded it. In the early 20th century, the individual, anti-union promise was resorted to frequently in coal mining and in the metal trades. And it was not membership in a union that was usually prohibited, but participation in those essential activities without which membership is valueless.

在19世纪最后十年以及20世纪开始时,作为劳工福利的一件工具,个人与反工会承诺已经式微,其新鲜度已经褪色,工人不再觉得自己在道义上要遵守承诺,当然,工会组织更是完全不理会。在20世纪初,个人与反工会的承诺还经常出现在煤炭开采和金属行业中。禁止的范围通常都不是工会的会员身份,而是参与那些基本活动,不参与的话这种会员身份就没有价值了。

In 1910, the International United Brotherhood of Leather Workers on Horse Goods, following an unsuccessful conference with the National Saddlery Manufacturers’ Association, called a national strike in the saddlery industry for the 8-hour day. The strike proved a failure, and a large number of employers required verbal or written promises to abandon and remain out of the organization as a condition of re-employment.

1910年,国际马用商品皮革工人团结兄弟会跟国家马具制造商协会召开的会议谈判不成功以后,号召马具行业的全国性大罢工八个小时。这次罢工以失败收场,因为大多数雇主要求雇员口头或书面承诺放弃和不参与工会活动作为再受雇条件之一。

In the case Adair v. United States, the United States Supreme Court’s majority held that the provision of the Erdman Act relating to discharge, because it would compel an employer to accept or retain the personal services of another person against the employer’s will, was a violation of the Fifth Amendment to the Constitution, which declares that no person shall be deprived of liberty or property without due process of law. The court was careful, however, to restrict the decision to the provision relating to discharge, and to express no opinion as to the remainder of the law. The section of the Erdman Act making it criminal to force employees to sign anti-union agreements therefore remained unadjudicated.

Adair诉美国一案里,美国最高法院的多数票裁定,厄尔曼法令中有关解雇的条文会迫使雇主接受或保留另一个人违反雇主意志的个人服务,就违反了宪法的第五次修订法令,法令宣告,任何人不得未经法律的正当程序被剥夺自由或财产。法院小心地把裁定限制在跟解雇有关的条文中,对法律的其余部份就不发表任何意见。厄尔曼法令的章节规定,强迫雇员签反工会协议是刑事罪,因此是未经裁定的罪行。

The term yellow dog started appearing in the spring of 1921, in leading articles and editorials devoted to the subject which appeared in the labor press. Typical was the comment of the editor of the United Mine Workers’ Journal:

黄犬这个名词首度出现在1921年春天一个专门报道劳工报章里的一篇专栏文章。比较典型的是美国煤矿工人杂志的编辑评论:

This agreement has been well named. It is yellow dog for sure. It reduces to the level of a yellow dog any man that signs it, for he signs away every right he possesses under the Constitution and laws of the land and makes himself the truckling, helpless slave of the employer.[5]

这个协议命名得好,肯定是隻黄犬。任何签署这种合同的人都自贬为黄狗,因为他把宪法和这块土地赋予他的每一项权益都签给别人了,使自己成为雇主那个齿轮般无助的奴隶[5]。

Even though they were forbidden in the private sector by the Norris – LaGuardia Act in 1932, Yellow dog contracts were allowed in public sector, including with all sorts of government jobs, such as teachers, until the 1960s, beginning with precedent established in 1915 with Frederick v. Ownens.[6]

即使是在私营领域里被1932年的Norris-LaGuardia法令禁止,黄犬合同却在公共领域里获准使用,包括政府部门的各种工作,如教师,直到20世纪60年代才结束在1915年的Frederick诉Ownens一案中开始成立的先例[6]。

The purpose of the yellow dog contract is essentially to prevent employees from organizing. Such contracts are not enforceable, as they are illegal under the Norris-LaGuardia Act (Section 3).[7]

黄犬合同的目的主要是为了防止员工们组织工会。这样的合同不能强制执行,因为根据“Norris-LaGuardia法”(第3部)是非法的[7]。

 

Yellow-dog Union  黄犬工会

A yellow-dog union, sometimes also known as a company union refers to an employee association calling itself a trade union but which, in fact, is affiliated covertly or which is operated openly by an employer.

黄犬联盟,有时也被称为公司联盟,是指雇员协会自称为工会,但是事实上却暗中隶属于或者由雇主公开经营。

 

See also  另见

  • Labour rights  劳工权益
  • Labour and employment law  劳工和就业法
  • Christian Labour Association of Canada  加拿大基督教劳工协会
  • Coppage v. Kansas 一案

 

References  参考文献

[1] ^ JargonDatabase.com definition

^JargonDatabase.com(术语库网站)定义

[2] ^ Kaushik Basu (January 2006). “Coercion, Contract and the Limits of the Market (CAE Working Paper #06-01)”.

^Kaushik Basu(2006年1月)著的“强制性,合同以及市场的局限(CAE工作文件#06-01)”。

[3] ^ Arthur Schlesinger, Jr., The Crisis of the Old Order, 1919-1933, (Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, 1957), pp. 238-239

^Arthur Schlesinger,Jr.著的“旧秩序的危机”,1919-1933,(Houghton Miffin公司,波士顿,1957),238-239页

[4] ^ James Hague, compiler & editor, Stephen Biggs: Halcyon Days: Interviews with Classic Computer and Video Game Programmers, June 2002

^James Hague,编辑与编纂人,“Stephen Biggs:Halcyon日:访问旧电脑以及电玩程序编写员”,2002年6月。

[5] ^ Joel I. Seidman, The Yellow Dog Contract, The Johns Hopkins Press, 1932, Ch. 1, pp.11-38

^Joel I.Seidman著的“黄犬合约“,Johns Hopkins出版社,1932,第一章,11-38页。

[6] ^ Slater, Joseph E.. Public Workers: Government Employee Unions, the Law and the State, 1900 – 1962. Ithaca, NY: ILR Press, 2004.

^Slater,Joseph E著的“公共员工:政府雇员工会,法律与国家”,1900-1962。Ithaca,纽约:ILR出版社,2004.

[7] ^ Roberts, Harold S. (1986) Roberts’ Dictionary of Industrial Relations (3rd ed.). p. 800.

^Roberts,Harold S.(1986)著的“Robert的工业关系字典”(第三版)第800页。

 

Categories  分类

  • Contract law  合同法
  • Labour law  劳动法
  • History of labor relations in the United States  美国的劳工关系史
  • History of the United States (1918–1945)  美国历史(1918年至1945年)

 

Other Categories  其他分类

Contract law  合同法

Part of the common law series  普通法系列的一部分

Contract formation  合同的订立

Offer and acceptance  邀约和承约:Mailbox rule 邮箱规则

Mirror image rule 镜像规则• Invitation to treat 邀请作交易

Firm offer 确定的邀约• Consideration 代价

Defenses against formation  抗辩合约的成立

Lack of capacity 能力不足

Duress 胁迫• Undue influence 不当的影响

Illusory promise 虚假的承诺• Statute of frauds 欺诈条例

Non est factum 否认定理契约的答辩

Contract interpretation  合同的释义

Parol evidence rule 口头证据规则

Contract of adhesion 附着力合同

Integration clause 集成条款

Contra proferentem 对条文发起人不利的解读

Excuses for non-performance 不履行的藉口

Mistake 过失• Misrepresentation 失实陈述

Frustration of purpose 目的受挫• Impossibility 不可能性质

Impracticability 不可行性质• Illegality 不合法

Unclean hands 不洁的手• Unconscionability 不合情理性质

Accord and satisfaction 协定和满意度

Rights of third parties  第三方的权利

Privity of contract 相互关系的合同

Assignment 转让• Delegation 转授

Novation 约务更替• Third party beneficiary 第三方受益人

Breach of contract  违约

Anticipatory repudiation 预期废除• Cover 承保

Exclusion clause 摒除条款• Efficient breach 有效率违约

Deviation 偏差• Fundamental breach 基本的违反

Remedies  补救措施

Specific performance 具体表现

Liquidated damages 算定的赔偿金

Penal damages 刑事赔偿• Rescission 撤销

Quasi-contractual obligations  半合同法律责任

Promissory estoppel 承诺不反悔

Quantum meruit 合理金额/按劳计酬

Related areas of law  相关领域的法律

Conflict of laws 法律冲突• Commercial law 商业法

Other common law areas  其他普通法适用地区

Tort law 侵权法·Property law 产权法

Wills, trusts and estates 遗嘱,信托和产业

Criminal law 刑法• Evidence 证据

 

—— END ——

 

Source > Wikipedia at en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yellow-dog_clause

Translated by > BlogHost — hkTan

Word Count > approx.870 words in English

 

Mystical Israel

May 9, 2012 1 comment

Mystical Israel  神秘的以色列

Israel’s unique geography and religious relevance promise a memorable and rewarding trip.

以色列的獨特地理位置和宗教的關係可以讓遊人難忘,不虛此行。

Religious tourism is evidently prominent in this country, as Israel comprises a large part of the Holy Land, a region of significant importance to all Abrahamic religion—Jews, Christians, Muslims and Baha’is. As the city of Jerusalem is of special importance to these religions, it attracts millions of visitors and devotees to perform a pilgrimage to this city. Let Diners World Travel takes you into the stunning world of Israel, where history and culture meets natural phenomenon and inspiring stories.

宗教旅遊在這個國家隨處可見,因為以色列有一大片的聖地,對亞伯拉罕宗教系的信徒如猶太人,基督徒,回教徒和巴哈伊(大同教)教徒來說都有重要意義。由於耶路撒冷是這些宗教的重要聖城,就吸引了百千萬計的訪客和信徒來朝聖。讓Diners World Travel-大來世界旅遊帶你深入以色列這個令人驚嘆的世界,看看歷史與文化跟自然景觀和激勵人心的故事如何擦撞出火花。

 

Mount of Olives  橄欖山

This mountains ridge in East Jerusalem has three peaks that run from the north to the south. It is one of the key attractions as Mount of Olives is the burial ground for many of the Jews for over 3,000 years and is home to about 150,000 graves.

這個位於以色列東部的山脊有三個山峰,從北到南延伸,這是橄欖山的主要景點之一,因為這座山是三千多年來猶太人的墳場,共有15萬個墳墓。

 

Jerusalem The Old City  耶路撒冷老城區

Heavily fortified with a strong city wall, the Old City is divided into four different quarters, namely Muslim quarters, Christian quarters, Jewish quarters and Armenian quarters. Inscribed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site, the Old City features many interesting sites, which one of it is the Jewish quarter that possesses a long and rich history, as can be seen through its exquisite architecture and artefacts. Don’t miss out the Crusader Church of St Anne, and the Pool of Bethesda, as well as the Church of the Holy Sepulcher, where Jesus was crucified.

這座老城被堅固的城牆圍起來,裡面分成四個住宅區,分別是回教徒社區,基督徒社區和亞美尼亞人社區,已經成為聯合國教科文組織承認的世界遺產。老城區裡有許多有趣的地點,其中一個是歷史悠久遺產豐富的猶太人社區,可以從精美的建築和文物看出來。別錯過聖安妮的十字軍教堂,畢士大水池,還有耶穌被釘在十字架上的聖幕教堂。

 

Jerusalem The New City  耶路撒冷新城區

Within the New City stands an interesting architecture, the Israel Museum, the largest cultural institutions in the State of Israel and ranked among the world’s leading art and archaeology museums. It is home to archaeology, fine arts, Jewish Art and Life Wings, and also features the most extensive holdings of biblical and Holy Land archaeology in the world. The highlight of the museum includes Shrine of the Book, which houses the Dead Sea Scrolls, the world’s oldest biblical manuscripts.

新城區裡有一座有趣的建築叫以色列博物館,是以色列國內最大的文化機構,在全世界著名的藝術與考古博物館中赫赫有名。這裡是考古學和美術作品的家,猶太人藝術和生命的展示廳也收藏了全世界最多的聖經文獻和聖地的文物,鎮館之寶包括書的神壇,裡面藏了死海古卷這份世界上最古老的聖經手稿。

 

Masada  馬薩達

A rugged natural fortress overlooking the Dead Sea, Masada is now a UNESCO World Heritage Site, and also an archaeology site of significant importance. The Masada complex, built by Herod the Great, King of Judaea, is an example of opulent architectural design, and boasts a sophisticated water system of that time. Also famous for its ancient palaces and fortifications, and the first Jewish-Roman war against the Roman Empire, Masada itself is like a massive museum. An excellent example would be the Palace of Herod the Great, a luxurious villa of the Early Roman Empire, whilst the camps and other fortifications that encircle the monument constitute the finest and most complete Roman siege works to have survived to the present day.

Masada-馬薩達這座天然要塞俯瞰死海,現在也是聯合國教科文組織確認的世界遺產地點,也是具有重要意義的考古現場。馬薩達建築群是猶太國王希律王所建,是個華麗建築設計的典範,當時就擁有傲人的複雜水利系統。另外,這個地方也因為古代宮殿和防禦工事而著名,參與了反抗羅馬帝國的第一次猶太人對羅馬人的戰役,因此馬薩達本身就是一個龐大的博物館。特出的古蹟就是希律王的宮殿,早期羅馬帝國的豪華別墅,裡面的營地和其他防禦工事環繞著整個遺址而建,保留了最完整最精緻的羅馬時代圍堵工事,至今不損。

 

Dead Sea  死海

Bordering Jordan, Israel and the West Bank, Dead Sea is Earth’s lowest elevation on land, and is also the deepest hypersaline lake in the world. Containing the world’s saltiest body of water, few animals are able to survive in the Dead Sea, but one can still find camels, hares and foxes in the mountains nearby. Enjoy a mud bath, which is rich in minerals, or experience a swim in the Dead Sea, as many believe it to be therapeutic.

跟約旦,以色列和西岸接壤的死海是地球上海拔最低的土地,也是世界上最深的鹽湖。這個湖有全世界最咸的水,很少動物能在死海裡生存,但還是可以在附近的山區裡找到駱駝,野兔和狐狸。你可以在死海裡享受富有礦物質的泥浴,或者在死海裡游泳,很多人都相信有治病療效。

 

—— END ——

 

Source > The Travel Times Newsletter  旅遊時光報

Translated by > BlogHost

Word Count > approx. 540 words in English

 

Prostate Cancer

Vitamin E tied to higher risk of prostate cancer

维生素E跟患前列腺癌的高风险有關

 

Men taking daily vitamin E were more likely to get prostate cancer than those not taking the dietary supplement, according to a study of close to 35,000 North Americans.

每日服用维生素E的男性比那些不服用膳食补充剂的人更容易患上前列腺癌,这是根据一项有三万五千名北美人参与的研究所发现的。

This means that over a decade, one or two men out of 100 taking vitamin E would be expected to get prostate cancer, said the researchers, whose findings were published in the Journal of the American Medical Association.

研究员说,这就表示了十多年来,每一百位服用维生素E的男性中有一两位会患上前列腺癌,这项研究结果已经在在美国医学协会杂志上发表。

“If you have enough of these vitamins in your system…extra doesn’t help you any, and too much of something like this can be harmful,” said Eric Klein from the Cleveland Clinic, one of the study’s authors, to Reuters Health.

其中一位来自Cleveland诊所的报告书作者之一的Eric Klein对路透社健康版的记者说,“如果你体内的系统已经有足够的维生素,再多一些是一点助益也没有,而且太多的话还可能对你有害。”

The findings come on the heels of a study suggesting that older women who take multivitamins have slightly increased death rates compared to those who don’t.

这项研究也证实了另一项研究的觀點認為,吃多种维生素合成药剂的年长妇女的死亡率比起那些不吃的人来得高。

“There’s a theme here that taking vitamins is not only not helpful but could be harmful” in people who are not deficient in vitamins, Klein added.

Klein说:“这里的主题是说,服用合成维生素药丸对那些不缺维生素的人不但没有帮助而且还可能有害。”

But one researcher who wasn’t part of the new study said he doubted it means vitamin E causes prostate cancer.

但是,有一位不属于这项研究的研究员说,他很怀疑这项研究可以断定维生素E会导致前列腺癌。

“It’s an interesting finding. I’m not sure I believe it,” said Neil Fleshner, from the University of Toronto, adding that the result may have been a chance finding or false positive.

来自多伦多大学的Neil Fleshner说,“这是个有趣的发现,但我不确定要不要相信。”他补充说,这项研究结果还是有可能是个案的假象。

For the study, men in the United States, Canada and Puerto Rico were randomly assigned to one of four groups. Starting between 2001 and 2004, about 9,000 men in each group took daily supplements of 400 international units (IU) of vitamin E, 200 micrograms of selenium, vitamin E and selenium together or a vitamin-free placebo pill.

这项研究随机地把来自美国,加拿大和波多黎各的男性分配到四个小组,从2001到2004年间,每一组都有九千多人每天吞食有四百个国际单位(IU)的维生素E合成药丸,两百微克的

200微克的硒,维生素E和硒一起吃或者没有维生素的安慰剂药丸。

The study was halted in late 2008 when the researchers saw a hint of an increased risk of prostate cancer in the men taking vitamin E. But they kept monitoring men for cancer after they stopped taking the supplements. It turned out that the extra risk became clearer over time.

到了2008年年尾,研究员看到服用维生素E的男性患上前列腺癌的风险有增加的迹象时,这项研究马上终止,但他们继续观察患癌的人在停止服用补充剂后的状况,结果时日一久风险就越明显。

By mid-2011, about seven percent of men who had taken vitamin E only had gotten prostate cancer, compared to six percent of those assigned to placebo pills.

2011年年中,只有大约7%吃过维生素E药丸的人已经得到前列腺癌,而分配到安慰剂药丸的人患癌的有6%。

The researchers did not find an extra risk of prostate cancer in men who took only selenium or vitamin E together with selenium.

研究员并没有发现那些只吃硒或维生素E与硒一起吃的的男性有患上前列腺癌的的额外风险。

Klein and his colleagues said it’s not clear how vitamin E would increase the risk of prostate cancer, and that not all past studies have shown it does any harm to the prostate. Some have even found a lower prostate-cancer risk with vitamin E.

Klein和他的同事们说,目前还不清楚维生素E是如何会增加患前列腺癌的风险,但并不是所有以前的研究都显示对前列腺有害,有些人甚至发现维生素E使到患前列腺癌的风险降低。

He added that the new findings aren’t definite proof that vitamin E causes extra prostate cancers, but that there wasn’t anything else that could explain why men taking the vitamin were more likely to be diagnosed with cancer — for example, they weren’t screened more frequently.

他补充说,这个新发现并没有明确地证明维生素E会产生多余的前列腺癌细胞,但也没有其他理由可以解释为什么服用维生素的男性更容易被诊断出致癌—譬如说,他们并没有接受很多次的断层扫描。

The supplement doses, he added, are much higher than what’s in most over-the-counter multivitamins, which typically contain 15 to 25 IU of vitamin E.

他接着说,补充剂量比起大多数的柜台在卖的多种维生素药丸还高得多,都有15至25 IU的维生素E成份在内。

Fleshner said that either way, vitamin E doesn’t seem to be beneficial for prostate health.

Fleshner说,无论是哪一种吃法,维生素E似乎都对前列腺的健康没有好处。

“There’s certainly no major evidence that vitamin E helps, so why bother?” he said.

他说,“当然也没有主要的证据显示维生素E对健康有益,那又何必管是怎么个吃法?”

While vitamin supplements are known to prevent disease in people who have vitamin deficiencies, so far studies haven’t found much extra benefit in people who already get enough vitamins through their diet. Specifically, vitamin E has not been shown to protect against heart disease, colon cancer or lung cancer.

大家都知道维生素补充剂是用来防止缺维生素的人患病,到目前为止,各项研究并没有发现在食谱中摄取足够维生素的人有得到更多的好处,特别是维生素E并没有显示出能有效防止心脏病,结肠癌或肺癌。

On the other hand, there is a growing body of evidence suggesting supplements may be harmful in high doses.

另一方面,有越来越多的证据在暗示剂量太多可能对身体有害。

“Vitamins are not innocuous substances,” Klein said.

Klein说,“维生素并不是无害的物质。”

 

—— END ——

 

Source > Reuters-路透社,October 12, 2011

Translated by > BlogHost

Word Count > approx. 600 words in English

Vitamin D

Vitamin D supplements can lower risk of dying

补充维生素D可降低死亡的风险

 

Boosting the level of vitamin D by using supplements for someone who is vitamin D deficient can lower his risk of dying by 60 percent, a new study found.

一项新的研究发现,为欠缺维他命D的人提供补充维生素可以加强维他命D的水平,降低60%的死亡风险。

Analyzing data on 10,889 patients, University of Kansas Hospital researchers found that 70 percent of them were deficient in vitamin D, with levels below the 30 nanograms per millilitre considered necessary for good health.

分析10889个病例患者的数据之后,堪萨斯大学医院的研究人员发现,其中70%缺乏维生素D的病人缺乏健康良好所需的低于每毫升30毫微克的水平。

After taking into account the patients’ medical history, medication and other factors, the cardiologists found that people with deficient levels of vitamin D were more than twice as likely to have diabetes. 40 per cent more likely to have high blood pressure and about 30 percent more likely to suffer from cardiomyopathy-diseased heart muscle-as people without this deficiency.

考虑到病人的病史,药物和其他因素后,心脏病学家发现,缺乏维生素D的人比起不缺乏的人有两倍以上的机率患上糖尿病,40%的机率有高血压,大约有30%机率会患上有心脏病菌的心肌病。

Overall, those who were deficient in vitamin D had a three-fold higher likelihood of dying from any cause than those who were not deficient, the researchers reported in the American Journal of Cardiology.

总的来说,那些缺乏维生素D的人比起那些不欠缺的人有三倍可能性会死于任何病因,这是研究人员在美国心脏病学杂志提出的报告。

When the tem look at people who took vitamin D supplements, their risk of death from any cause was about 60 per cent lower than the rest of the patients, although the effect was strongest among those who were vitamin D deficient at the time they were tested.

研究小组观察了食用维生素D补充剂的人发现,他们因为任何原因引起的死亡风险比其余的患者低了60%左右,虽然效果会在这些人进行测试期欠缺维生素D时最明显。

Vitamin D deficiency has been linked to a range of illnesses, but few studies have demonstrated that supplements could prevent those diseases.

欠缺维生素D跟一系列疾病有关联,但很少有研究显示补充剂可以预防这些疾病。

Dr.James L.Vacek, a professor of cardiology at the University of Kansas Hospital and Medical Center, said : “We expected to see a relationship between heart disease and vitamin D deficiency; we were surprised at how strong it was.”

堪萨斯州大学医院和医疗中心心脏病科教授Dr.James L. Vacek说:“我们有准备看到心脏疾病和维生素D缺乏症之间的关系,但关联之紧密让我们感到惊讶。”

But the study does not prove that vitamin D is the cause of the effects seen. Other factors, such as disease, could be responsible both for the differences in health and the differences in vitamin D levels.

但这项研究并没有证明维生素D是所观察到的效果的主因。其他因素如病菌也可能造成健康与维生素D不同水平之间的差异。

Still, people should get about 90 per cent of vitamin D from the sun and about 10 per cent from food, Dr Vacek said.

Vacek博士说,尽管如此,人们还是应该从阳光中吸收大约90%的维生素D以及从食物中摄取大约10%的维生素D。

The human body makes vitamin D in response to skin exposure to sunlight. At least 10 minutes of full-body exposure to sunlight each day is required to get a sufficient amount of vitamin D, Dr Vacek said.

皮肤暴露在阳光下时人体会制造维生素D。Vacek博士说,每天有至少10分钟让全身暴露在阳光下才能得到足够的维生素D含量。

Certain types of food, such as oily fish, eggs and enriched milk products, are also good sources of vitamin D.

某些食物,如油性鱼,蛋和加工的奶类制品,也是维生素D的好来源。

The findings mean that adults should consider getting their vitamin D levels checked through a simple blood test and take vitamin D supplements if they are deficient, said Dr Vacek.

Vacek博士说,这个发现意味着,成年人应该考虑通过简单的血液测试去检查他们的维生素D水平,如果有所欠缺,就吃维生素D补充剂。

He said: “If you’re not deficient, vitamin D is not a magic pill that will make you live longer. Its benefit is in people who are deficient.”

他说:“如果你不缺乏,维生素D也不是什么神奇药丸能让你活得更长久。它只是对欠缺的人有好处。”

 

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Source > Newspaper Article

Translated by > BlogHost

Word Count > approx. 500 words in English

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